Social Identity, Self Discrepency, and Regulatory Focus Theory

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1. Define promotional goals

  • Concerned with personal aspiration and accomplishment of set goals, striving to achieve their 'ideal' self
  • Concerned with obligations and personal responsibilities, striving to achieve the 'ought' self
  • Concerned with delaying difficult or important tasks, instead completing easier ones in an attempt of avoidance
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2. Define 'social comparison'

  • The comparison of modern-day society to society in the past
  • The comparison of our in-groups to out-groups
  • The comparison of an individual to large groups

3. How does a low-achiever evaluate their actions?

  • Against their 'ought' self, what they think they should have achieved
  • Against their 'ideal' self, what they think they would ideally have achieved
  • Against their peers actions, and how they could have achieved better

4. Define 'social categorisation'

  • An extreme practice of splitting different social categories into separate areas of the city - e.g. 'Dauntless', 'Abnegation', and 'Erudite'
  • Grouping different identities together, for example: 'blue collar', 'white collar', white, black, Asian etc.
  • Splitting society so that it fits into certain categories

5. What do in-groups provide for the individual?

  • Guidance of what to believe and how to act in society
  • A sense of belonging and social identity, becoming sources of pride and self-esteem
  • The tools to succeed in society, for example, education and financial resource


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