Social Identity, Self Discrepency, and Regulatory Focus Theory

1. According to Tajfel, what happens when people stereotype?

  • We exaggerate differences between the groups, and exaggerate the similarities between things in the out-group
  • We create barriers between the in-group and out-groups, eventually making it so that it is very difficult to exit the in-group
  • We project the insecurities of the in-group onto the out-group
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2. Define 'social identification'

  • The extent to which we identify with certain groups and internalise them as part of our self-concept
  • The terms used by society to tell who people are, for example, 'male' and 'female'
  • A process used by the government and public sector agencies to identify people through DNA

3. What does self-discrepancy distinguish between?

  • Negative and positive role modelling
  • The actual, ideal and ought self
  • Our different personality traits

4. What is the central hypothesis of SIT?

  • In-groups seek to find negative aspects of an out-group to enhance their self-image
  • In-groups are powerful tools used by the majority in order to control the population
  • Out-groups form as part of a resistance to majority views

5. What do promotional focused people focus on?

  • Achieving through others' failure, creating negative role modelling of 'cramming' rather than focused revision
  • Achieving the highest possible grade, being inspired by positive role models of high achievement and trying to emulate them
  • Achieving a good enough grade, focusing their energy on social and creative tasks that will help their mental health


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