Social: Definitions

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  • Created by: miaakate
  • Created on: 26-02-14 17:37
Agency Theory
Milgram’s research led to development of this theory as a way of explaining obedience.
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Agentic State
People allow others to direct their actions. Become somebody else’s agent and don’t take any responsibility.
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Alternative Hypothesis
The expected conclusion you thought would occur before the study even is completed.
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Attitude
Relatively enduring organisation of beliefs, feelings and behavioural tendencies towards socially significant objects, groups, events or symbols.
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Authority Figure
A person who presents power or status in some way.
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Autonomous State
People direct their own actions, and they take responsibility for the results of those actions.
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Behaviour
Manner of behaving and conducting oneself.
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Case Study
A case study in psychology refers to the use of a descriptive research approach to obtain an in depth analysis of a person, group or phenomenon.
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Closed Questions
These type of questions require a fixed response, usually one word answers. E.g., yes or no.
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Cognitive
The psychological study of higher mental processes including thinking and perception.
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Control Group
A group of subjects/conditions that is matched as closely as possible to the experimental group, but is not exposed to experimental treatment.
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Debrief
When a study or experiment ends, researchers are required to debrief participates which includes explaining the purpose of the study, what they found out, clear up any deceptions etc.
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Deception
When a participant is deceived in a study, and isn’t told the entire truth until the end of the study.
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Competence
How competent is the experimenter? Are they doing the experiment for the right reasons? Do they have the knowledge, competence and ability to the carry the experiment out?
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Dependent Variable
The variable that is being measured in an experiment.
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Ethical Guidelines
A set of principles of right conduct. A theory or system of moral values.
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Ethics
Moral philosophy that involves systemizing, defending or recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
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Field Study
Field research; any study conducted in person, in a natural setting outside a laboratory, possibly through interviews.
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Hypothesis
A statement about what you expect to find in your study.
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Independent Variable
The characteristic of a psychology experiment that is manipulated/changed.
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In group
A group you identify with, sharing the same interests. E.g., a Swansea City football fan would identify with Swansea as their in group because they share the same interests and support the same team.
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Interview
A formal meeting in person.
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Laboratory Experiment
Research that is done in a controlled environment, and this method is used to investigate something with several variables controlled.
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Likert Scale
Type of psychometric scale frequently used in psychology questionnaires. E.g. strongly agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree, strongly disagree.
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Longitudinal Studies
Type of research method used to discover relationships between variables that are not related to various background variables.
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Method
A procedure, technique or way of doing something especially in accordance to a definite plan.
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Minimal Group
A group set up for the purpose of research that has no meaningful basis for membership.
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Moral Strain
Where we do something that goes against our principles but seems to be for the greater good.
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Norm
Social norms are group held beliefs about how members should behave in a given context.
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Null Hypothesis
This hypothesis states that there is no relationship between the two variables being studied. [One variable does not affect the other.]
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Obedience
Means obeying direct orders from someone in authority.
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Observation
The action of process of closely observing or monitoring something or someone.
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Open Questions
Open ended questions allow the respondent to state their attitudes and opinions, e.g. How do you think others see you!?
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Opportunity
A time or set of circumstances that makes it possible to do something. A favourable/suitable chance for progress of advancement.
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Out - Group
Those people who don’t belong to a specific in-group. The group a person doesn’t identify with, e.g. a Swansea football fan’s out-group would be Cardiff.
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Participants
A person who takes part in something.
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Placebo
A substance given that is said to be the active material but is simply an inactive agent, e.g. water or sugar.
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Population Validity
To whom the results can be generalised; external validity.
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Prejudice
Preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience.
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Qualitative Data
Data that approximates or characterizes. This type of data describes, and is language based, e.g. questions, surveys, interviews.
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Quantitative Data
Data that can be quantified and verified. This type of data defines and includes numerical data, e.g. percentages.
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Questionnaire
Questionnaires include a set of questions to gather data about a particular hypothesis.
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Random Allocation
A random sample in which every element in the population has an equal chance of being selected.
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Rating Scales
Presents users with an item and asks them to select from a number of choices, e.g. multiple choice tests.
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Reliability
If you did the study again and again. Would you get the same results!? Not very scientific, reliable, useful otherwise. You need to get the same results each time!
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Right to withdraw
This is giving the particpants the right, and the opportunity to withdraw and leave the experiement at any given time, if they choose to do so.
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Sample
A selection from the target population chosen to represent it by participating in research
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

People allow others to direct their actions. Become somebody else’s agent and don’t take any responsibility.

Back

Agentic State

Card 3

Front

The expected conclusion you thought would occur before the study even is completed.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Relatively enduring organisation of beliefs, feelings and behavioural tendencies towards socially significant objects, groups, events or symbols.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A person who presents power or status in some way.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

stacey shemwell

this is very useful

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