Social Cognition

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Name Tomasello's 5 criticisms of Universal Grammar?
Creole Languages, linguistic universals, critical period, poverty of the stimulus, language uniquely human.
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Which 2 things does Tomasello believe lead to language?
Social Competence & Intention Sharing
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According to Tomasello what makes human cognition unique?
The ABILITY and MOTIVATION to share intentions.
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What does the social cognition hypothesis suggest?
When we carry out actions, there are observable indicators of our intentions.
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Tomasello's 3 levels of intention understanding?
1) Understanding Animate Action, 2) Understanding Pursuit of Goals, 3) Understanding Choice of Plans
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Tomasello's 3 levels of intention sharing & what they are?
1) Dyadic Engagement - Sharing Behaviour & Emotions, 2) Triadic Engagement - Sharing goals and perception, 3) Collaborative Engagement - Joint attention & intentions
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Give an example of what happens during triadic engagement?
Person 1 attends to object/event ---> Person 2 attends to object/event ---> person 1& 2 realise that 1 and 2 are true ---> They communicate about object/event.
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What is an intention according to Tomasello?
A plan of action the organism chooses and commits itself to in pursuit of a goal ---> an intention includes both a means (action plan) and a goal.
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What is the continuity problem with relation to Universal Grammar?
Children learn language gradually as opposed to all at once as suggested by UG.
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What is the linking problem with regards to Universal Grammar?
Language universals are too general to be helpful and some are too abstract and complicated.
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How does the notion of 'Inateness of social attention' support social cognition?
To attend to others'mental states we rely on social cues e.g. gaze following, voices etc. ---> Starts early in development ---> ears tuned to freq of human voices ---> humans have prominent sclera.
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How does grammar acquisition support social cognition?
UG claims all grammar learned by age 6 then fixed ---> evidence shows can change over lifespan ---> 18-24 yo can learn novel syntactic rules.
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How does Tomasello explain Autism?
Poorly developed social skills (shared intentionality) ---> can understand goals but can't do this spontaneously ---> lack motivation to share intentions and mental states.
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How does the idea that social cognition is unique support social cognition?
Nim Chimpsky - bad at grammar & interrupted teachers - primates lack social skills. ---> children outperform primates on test of social skills ---> intention sharing but not understanding (barrier & ultimatum game).
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Card 2

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Which 2 things does Tomasello believe lead to language?

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Social Competence & Intention Sharing

Card 3

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According to Tomasello what makes human cognition unique?

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Card 4

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What does the social cognition hypothesis suggest?

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Card 5

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Tomasello's 3 levels of intention understanding?

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