Social Approach

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What studies are in the social approach?
Milgram, Piliavin & Rodin, Reicher & Haslam
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Milgram - behavioural study of?
Obedience
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year?
1963
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Context?
Adolf Eichmann, WW2 holocaust
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Aim?
To investigate the level of obedience shown when told to administer electric shocks by an authority figure.
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Research method?
Controlled experiment & Observation
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Sample?
40 males, 20-50 years, new haven area, all levels of education, different occupations.
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Sampling method?
Self-selecting
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Prods used?
"please continue" the experiment requires that you continue, it is absolutely essential that you continue, you no choice, you must go on.
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Findings?
65% reached 450v, 100% reached 300v, 14/40 had nervous laughing fits.
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Ethical guidelines upheld?
Consent, Withdraw, Confidentiality, Debrief
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Broken?
Consent, Depetion, Withdraw, Harm
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Name 2 problems
Only used male experimenter, Broke harm (ethics)
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Piliavin & Rodin, Focus?
Helping behaviour
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Year?
1969
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Context?
Kitty Genoves murder - 1964. Latane and Darley experiment
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Research method?
Field experiment
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Passengers per carriage?
43
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In critical area?
8
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Percentage black and white?
45% black, 55% white
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Time experimenter collapsed?
70 seconds after train left station
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Number of trials per day?
6-8
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Between what time & months?
100am-3pm, April-June
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Train travelled from where to where?
59th - 125th street
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Sample?
4,450 passengers from NY, 45% black 55% white
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Sampling method?
Opportunity
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Quantitative findings?
Help given to 62/65 ill condition average of 5 seconds, 19/38 helped drunk condition average 109 seconds
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Qualitative findings?
"it's for men to help" "I wish I could help him, Im not strong enough"
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x2 problems
pp's all from same NY area, confederate was always a male
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Reicher & Haslam, Focus?
Roles & tyranny
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Year?
2006
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Context?
Honey, Banks & Zimbardo experiment 1973, Stanford Prison Experiment
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Research method?
Experimental case study
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Sample?
15 males, pro-sociall, diversity of age social class & ethnic background.
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Sampling method?
Self-selecting
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x2 problems?
pp's all male, knew were being filmed
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x3 IV's?
Permeability (promotion day 3), Legitimacy (informed of random role allocation day 6), Cognitive alternative (10th prisoner day 7)
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Conclusions?
Failure of prisoners to act as a group allowed tyranny of guards to emerge.
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Section C, main assumption?
An individuals behaviour, thought processes and emotions are majorly influenced by other people and the surrounding environment.
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An implication?
We must investigate behaviours in an ecologically valid setting and with people in social context.
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Similarity?
Milgram & RH used all males
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Difference?
Ethical nature of RH & Milgram
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X2 strengths of approach?
Helps us understand how behaviour can be influenced by other people and the situation in which people find themselves. Has many practical applications, provides explanations for many phenomena which are relevant to society.
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x2 weaknesses of approach?
Underestimates influence of individual differences, biology or cognition on behaviour, making approach reductionist. Often fails to emphasise that human behaviour has cultural context, making research in any given area ethnocentric.
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Milgram - behavioural study of?

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Obedience

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year?

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Card 4

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Context?

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Card 5

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Aim?

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