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  • Created on: 06-05-14 19:39
Three aspects of social psychology
Thinking, influence and relations
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Allport believes
thoughts, feelings and behaviour of individuals are influenced by actual, imagined or implied presence of others
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judgements about the causes of our and others behaviours and outcomes, personal (internal) or situational
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Three types of attribution
Consistent (reliably occur), Distinctiveness (only in one context), Consensus (whether a lot of people agree, money on bus)
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All three high / consistency low
high = situational, low = personal
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Fundamental attribution error
underestimate impact of situation and overestimate personal facotrs when explaining others behaviour, reduced when people are given and motivated (eg - essay being portrayed as your actual view)
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Self-serving bias
tendancy to make personal attributes for successes and situational for failures, protects and enhances self-esteem
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Culture and attribution
FAE may reflect western culture as focused on individualism, other culture more likely to tend a context of a behaviour
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Asch on forming impressions
how someone is presented with words effects your opinion on them
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Primacy effect
more attachment to first information we heart, more alert and shapes opinion
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How does someone keep this positive first impression?
Attribute negative actions to the situation
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Mental set
A readiness to perceive the world in a certain way, Schemas, nice person = schema on how to treat them
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generalised belief about a group or category of people, perception of other's behaviour based on these
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Darley and Gross
told girl of lower and middle class, 50% on test, lower rated as lower potential
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Self-fullfilling prophesy
Our expectations towards a person cause them to behave in that way, vicious cycle
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Self concept
refers to our representation of ourself
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Sources of self-knowledge
depedant of context and part linked to roles in society, self perception, social comparison to others
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Reflected appraisal
incorporate others view of us into our self-concept
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3 measures of evaluation of the self
self esteem (sense of selfworth), sociometer (internal monitor of social acceptance and belonging), collective self esteem (judgement of measures of the value of ones place in a group)
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Forms of identity
ideas and thoughts of ourself that links to the future
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Self discrepancy theory
distinguish between what we currently are (actual), what we hope to become (ideal) and what we ought to become (ought)
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Regulatory focus
both future selfs are concerned with the pursuit of different types of goals
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Promotional goals
striving for an ideal state
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Preventional goals
focusing on what one ought to do
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Three factors why attitudes don't predict behaviour
Attitudes influence behaviour more strongly when situational factors contradict attitudes, attitudes influence when we are aware, general attitudes = general behaviour
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Theory of planned behaviour
our engagement in a behaviour is strongest when we are positive, social norms support and we believe behaviour is controlled
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Cognitive Dissonance - Festinger
strive for cognitive consistency, what to believe their thoughts are true
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Reducing dissonance
if task if boring and asked to say it was good, will alter cognition so don't have to lie
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Counter attitudinal behaviour
inconsistent behaviour with our attitude, causes dissonance if behaviours cause bad consequences, behaviour threatens self-worth, perceive behaviour as free
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Self perception theory
infer our attitudes by observing our behaviour, not cognitive dissonance but we change our attitude to fit our behaviours
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Problems with dissonance
explains behaviours when we are more physiologically aroused when we engage in counter-attitudinal behaviour however not in low arousal situations
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When does disonnance explain attitude change?
when counter attitudinal behaviour threatens self-worth or is highly inconsistent
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When does self perception explain attitude change?
When situation are less likely to create significant arousal
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Three factors of persuasion
Communicator credibility, the message, the audience
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2 sided refutational approach
if the audience are aware of the two sides, also fear reducing when they feel they can change
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Central route to persuasion
people think carefully about the message as argument is compelling
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Peripheral route
people don't scrutinise the message but are influenced by other factors
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surface behaviour change not in line with true cognitions
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4 techqniues of compliance
Norm of reciprocity, door in the face, foot in the door, low balling
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Norm of reciprocity
when someone treats you well you should be nice back
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Door in the face
present large request then a smaller one
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Foot in the door
present small request then ask for a larger one
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Low balling
gets you to commit to a behaviour then increase cost, car salesman
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do not need techniques, simply authoirty MILGRAM 1974
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5 factors influencing obediance
Remoteness of victim, clossness and legitimacy of figure, diffusion of responsbility, personal characters and gender don't influence
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Social norms
shared expectations of how people think, feel and behave, implicit and unspoken, conciously aware
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Social role
characterises how people in a social situation ought to behave
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Autokinetic effect
perceptual illusion of light moving in a dark room
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Collective frame of reference is a
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adjustment of individual behaviours, attitudes and beliefs to a group standard (Asch 1951)
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Factors causing conformity
Informational social influence (following others as we believe they're right), normative social influence (conforing to obtain rewards of acceptance)
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Factors affecting conformity
Group size (increases until 5), presence of dissenter (one dissagreeing), in group vs out (greater conformity for in group)
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To maximise conformity, the minority must
be highly commited, remain independant, open minded, be visable and not unreasonable, alternative coherant view, show change in opinion is a necessity
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What are the cultural differences?
Collectivists more likel to yield to majority to keep harmony
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Social Loafing RIngleman
less individual effort when working in a group
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Collective effort model
Only as much effect as required to reach the goal
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3 situations when social loafing occurs
individual performance not monitered, task has less value to the person, low motivatoin and others high
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Stronger for males or females?
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2 situations when loafing disappears
individual monitered, members value their group
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Social compensation
one perosn worries others are all loafers so works more, rewards loafers
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Group polarization
a group of likeminded people discuss an issue and become more extreme
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Group think
Tendancy of group members to suspend critical thinking as don't to seek agreement
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3 symptoms of group think
pressure applied to those in doubt, mind guards (prevent negative info from group), illusion of unanimity created
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Most likely to occur when
high stress to reach decision, insuluated from outside group, directive leader and cohesiveness
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4 reasons that increases risk of defective decision making
incomplete suvey of alternatives and objectives, failure to examine risk of preferred choice, poor information search, failure to reappraise alternatives
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Stereotype threat
create self-conciousness and a fear to live up to others stereotypes
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3 ways to reduce prejudice
Equal status contact, educational approach, simulations to reduce "shooter bias"
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Kin selection
help people with same genes as increases likilhood of survival
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Reciprocal altruism
increases odd family will help us
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Norms of reciprocity
reciprocate others kindness
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helping others to enhance their welfare
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Egoistic goals
helping to improve our welfare like self-esteem
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altruism is produced by empathy, if someone is in pain you feel it too
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Why do people help
situational/personal, Bystander intervention, bystander effect
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5 sections of bystander intervention
notice event, decide if emergency, assume responsibility, level of self-efficacy, decision to help (cost-benefit)
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Whom do people help?
Similarity, gender, perceived fairness and responsibility
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3 ways to increase pro-social behaviour
pro-social models, empathy and connectedness, learn about hindering bystanding effect
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3 factors affecting attraction
Proximity, similarity, physical attractiveness
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Sternberg-consummate love
Passion, intimacy, commitment
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Prosocial helping, attraction and prejudice are all examples of
social relationships
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Social ______ focuses on attributions, impressions and attitudes
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discharging built-up agressive energy
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when people change their views after behaving in ways that clearly contradict their clearly defined attitudes
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Social exchange theory
The course of a relationship is governed by rewards and costs that the partners experience
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the process that makes it easier to harm people
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the sharing of inner most thoughts and feelings plays a key role in relationships
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Allport believes


thoughts, feelings and behaviour of individuals are influenced by actual, imagined or implied presence of others

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Three types of attribution


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All three high / consistency low


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