Social test 2 revision

  • Created by: Steff06
  • Created on: 04-12-17 14:49
Name Maslow's hierarchy of needs in order
Physiological needsm safety + security, love + belonging, self-esteem, self-actualisation
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Define pheromones
Chemical signals discovered in moths Smell is veru important - prefere different immune systems
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What is the halo effect?
Belief attractive people have many positive qualities extending beyond physical appearance (automatic inferences).
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Desrcibe one explanation of the halo effect
May be due to self-fulfilling properties
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What do working models of relationships include?
Expectations of...partner's availabilty, warmth and ability to provide security
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What is developmental trajectory?
Proximity seekig (2-6m), safe haven (8-10m), secure base (1yr)
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Define primacy effects
Initial judgements/information clouds later judgements
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When do women prefer the scent of masculine men?
When ovulating
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Describe the social power explanation
Women have less power and fewer resources than men
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The components of intimacy are...
Attachment, closeness, trust and connectedness
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Which component is involved in liking?
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What type of love combines all 3 components?
Consummate love
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Which component is infatuation and companionate?
Passion. Intimacy and commitment
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Fatuous love is...?
Passion and commitment
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The qualities that oxytocin is associated with are...
Trust, love, affection and compassion
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State the effects of oxytocin
Increases in-group conformity, boosts envy + schadenfreude, promotes ethnocentism, cooperation with in-group members, competition with strangers
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Describe large effects
Positive illusions, commitment, love and dependence
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Name medium effects
Inclusion of other in self, trust, disclosure, alternatives and satisfaction
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How does the investment model influence partner's commitment?
Rewards-to-cost ratio, quality of alternatives and investments
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How many positive experiences must there be for every negative experience according to the rewards-to-cost ratio?
Must be 5 positive experiences for every 1 negative one
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What does it mean for the relationship if there are fewer alternatives?
Stronger commitment, devalue alternatives more
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Define sunk costs
Put effort and cost in, so less willing to get out of it
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State the 5 min reasons that couples fight
Free time, money, housework, physical intimacy and extended family
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What 4 factors predict divorce?
Contempt, criticism, defensiveness and stonewalling
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Contempt is...
Expressing disdain/scorn. Predicts breakup most. E.g. cyncism and sarcasm
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Stonewalling is...
Withdrawing from conflict, ignoring/avoiding issue
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Name the 4 response types exhibited by partners
Active constructive, passive constructive, active destructive, passive destructive
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Describe UNHAPPY couples for both negative and positive events
Negative = internal, stable, global. Positive = External, unstable, specific
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Explain HAPPY couples for both negative and positive events
Negative = External, unstable, specific. Positive = Internal, stable, global
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List the ABC's of attitudes
Affect, behaviour, cognition
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Define affect
How the target makes you feel
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Define cognition
Knowledge/belies about the target
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List the 6 reasons research has struggled to predict behaviour
Other powerful determinants, inconsistent attitudes, attidudes can be based on 2nd hand info, mismatch between specific & general, automatic behaviour can bypass conscious attitudes
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Describe other powerful determinants
Power of the situation, situational factors can overwhelm people's dispositions
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Describe the difference between specific and general
Attitudes are general, behaviours are specific. Attitudes are better predictors of behaviour
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What did priming professpr make people?
Made them bettte
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What did priming professpr make people?
Made them better at trivial pursuit
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What did priming supermodel do?
Made people worse as it is specific over general
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What do explicit attitudes measure?
Attitudes you verbally state out loud. Predict explicit, controlled behaviour
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What do implicit attitudes measure?
Unconscious attitudes, can be present through priming. E.g. IAT. Predict behaviours better than explicit.
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Define cognitive consistency
People are motivated to maintain consistency between thoughts, feelings and behaviour
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Name the main consistency theories (2)
Balance theory and cognitive dissonance
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Describe Heider's balance theory
Try to maintain balance among beliefs, cognitions and feelings E.g. gossip, politics
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Explain cognitive dissonance theory
How behaviour influences attitudes. Inconsistency produces an aversive state (dissonance). Leads to restoring consistency.
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Name the 3 main times to experience dissonance
After deciding between 2 alternatives (post-decision dissonance), after putting high effort into something (effort-justificaton), after engaging in behaviour that doesn't match your attitude.
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Describe spreading of alternatives paradigm
Try to make the unchosen option sound worse - find flaws in thoe we didn't pick and hidden bonuses in what we did pick
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What is attitude discrepant behaviour?
Behaviour not in line with attitudes. Relieved by changing attitude.
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What is the causal attribution process?
Clear situational reason - probably situation. No clear situational reason - must have been me
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Define the self-perception theory
Critiques cognitive dissonance. Provides alternative account of dissonance findings. People know attitudes by looking at behaviour + engage in dispassionate inference process. No implied arousal state
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Describe the misattribution of arousal with epinephrine
Told no effect = standard dissonance effect. Tense = effect disappeared. Relaxed = Stronger dissonance than usual
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When is CD/SPT most used?
CD when stronger held, controversial and highly valued. SPT when attitudes are vague and ambitious
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What is the relationship between threat and dissonance?
Less dissonance when threatened
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The overjustification effect is...
Tendency to devalue activities we perform in order to get something else
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State the effect of extrinsic rewards
They can decrease intrinsic and motivation
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Describe the third person effect
Perception bias/people assume persuasive messages have a strong influence on others, not themselves
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Agenda control is...
Topics covered frequently are better predictors of behaviour
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What is thought polarisation?
Thinking about an issue tends to produce more extreme, resistant attitudes
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Attitude inolculation is...
Small dose of the opposing position can increase resistance to next influence attempts
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Name the 3 key components of emotion
Brief, responses to specific events, socially functional
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Are facial expressions, moods, physiological responses and emotional disorders brief?
Facial expressions and physiological responses are brief
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What can be said to be specific?
Emotions are specific, moods are less specific
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Describe the primary stage of emotional appraisal
Unconscious, fast, automatic. Initial positive/negative feelings
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Explain the secondary stage of emotional appraisal
Conscious, deliberate, slower. Transform initial feelings into specific emotions
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The principle of servicable habits is what?
Human expressions of emotion come from patterns of behaviour that were beneficial for our evolutionary predecessors
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Darwins 3 hypotheses were...
Emotions are universal, we have same facial muscles, 6 universal emotions.
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What are the 6 universal emotions that Darwin stated?
Happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, digust and fear
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Define hypercognize emotions
Multiple words/descriptions for an emotion
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Infrahumanisation is...
Tendency for in group to see out group as less human. Assume own group members are more likely to experience complex, sophisticated emotions than outgroup.
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What are positive emotions linked to?
Creative and flexible thinking, novel word associations and categorising objects inclusively
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What do we use for top-down processing?
Likely to use stereotypes/availability heuristic
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What is used for bottom-up processing?
If we're sad, we're less likely to use stereotypes
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Describe William James' theory of emotion
Emotions are perceptions of bodily changes in response to the environment. Responses to physical feelings
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What is the two-factor theory of emotion?
Emotions are made of the 2 components - undifferentiated physiological arousal and cognitive explanation (construal) of arousal
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Name the 3 determinants of pleasure
Peak, end, duration neglect
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Which of the 3 determinants of pleasure matter?
Peak and end matter, neglect doesnt
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Immune neglect is...
Underestimate resilience during negative life events
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What percentage of variance in happiness is genetic, environmental and determined through choices?
50% genetic, 10% environment, 40% activities you choose, thoughts and styles
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What is linked to each stereotype, prejudice and discrimination?
Stereotypes = cognition, prejudice = emotion, discrimination = behaviour
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Define hostile sexism
Antagonistic attitude towards women who are viewed as trying to control men through feminist ideology. Domination, degradation
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Ambivalent sexism is...
Women are incompetent and so need men to protect and take care of them
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Describe the stereotype content model
Assesses warmth and competence. Stereotype women are high in warmth and low in competence
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Explain Robber's cave
1 - groups engaged in separate activities. 2 - conflict/in-group favouritism within groups competing. 3 - attempt to reverse prejudice and reduce conflict
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Name the thing required for conflict
Economic competition
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What is a way to reduce prejudice?
Contact hypothesis - hostile groups will reduce prejudice under 6 conditions
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List the 6 conditions which will reduce prejudice
Mutual interdependence, common goals, equal status, informal personal contact, multiple contacts and social norms of equality
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Define schemas
Schemas are knowledge structures that use info you already have as a shortcut for assessing new situations. Can be useful to decrease time/effort. But harmful when rigid.
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What is the outgroup homogeneity effect?
Tendency to assume within-group similarity is much stronger for outgroups. Assumption outgroups are all alike, whilst ingroups are varied and distinct
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What are illusory correlations?
Biased perceptions and memory for connection between unusual acts and minority groups. Incorrect belief 2 things are related.
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Situational attribution...
Stereotype-inconsistent behaviour
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Dispositional attribution is...
Stereotype-consistent behaviour
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Desribe attributional ambiguity
Members of stigmatised group may be uncertain if treatment is due to them personally or due to group membership
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Define pheromones


Chemical signals discovered in moths Smell is veru important - prefere different immune systems

Card 3


What is the halo effect?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Desrcibe one explanation of the halo effect


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What do working models of relationships include?


Preview of the front of card 5
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