Social reforms:

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What was the housing of the Working Class act of 1890?
Local authorities had the power to build areas of new housing- council houses.
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What does Lassez Faire mean?
To leave alone, eg. the Government did not support the poor.
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What were the Victorian beliefs of the poor in 1900's?
Fault of the poor- little charity and sympathy, the government weren't willing to help. No pensions- had to work up until your death as you cannot afford to not work. No free healthcare- if ill couldn't afford to survive.
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No benefits- Disabled/unable to work couldn't afford to survive, rely on charities which is dehumanising. Charity/church- couldn't support everyone. Poor law- had to go into a workhouse. Try to save- wages were too low.
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Poor law amendment act of 1834:
No able-bodied person could receive poor relief, so had to go into a workhouse.
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What/who was in workhouses?
Where poor people could work for accommodation. Orphaned/abandoned children, physically/mentally ill, sick, disabled, elderly people and unmarried mothers.
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Who was Charles Booth?
Successful businessman, who became interested in social issues because of socialist Beatrice Webb. Published 17 volumes in 1889 on findings: undeserving poor-1%, 30% lived below the poverty line because of low wages, casual work, and old age/illness.
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Who was Seabohm Rowntree?
Famous confectioner in York, published in 1901 a book called Poverty: A study of town life 9(2 years research in york)
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What did he find?
Unemployment-5%, death of wage earner-10%, illness/old age-5%, low wages-22%, large family-52%, other-6%.
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Conclusions of research:
Poverty generally caused by old age, illness or similar factors. It was not a result of being lazy and careless with money. It was not the poors fault.
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Who was John Galt?
Pious, worked as missionary in East End of London, used photography to show the extremity of poverty, and that it wasn't the poor's fault.
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Which party won the 1906 General Election?
Liberal party
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Order of importance of issues of the Liberal party?
1.Attacks on policy from previous government. 2. Keep free trade between Britain and other countries. 3. Improver Education. 4. Sort out problems in Ireland. 5. Change opening hours for public houses.
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6. End enslavement of immigrant Chinese workers in South Africa. 7. Reform of the poor law.
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Why did the Liberals reform the welfare state?
1. As the socialists such as Rowntree and Booth were rich and friends with DLG, they influenced New Liberalism. Booth owned 'The Nation' and 'Daily News', publicises the issues and generates votes. Research showed Government should support the poor.
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Poor health amongst children from Poor District:
Rickets-30/50 in poor children, 10/50 in well-to-do. Bad teeth- 27/50 in poor, 22/50 in well-to-do. Weight- 9 lbs on average less than well-to-do. Height- 6" less than well-to-do.
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Boer War:
Between 1899-1902, Britain was defending its territory in Souther Africa. 50% recruits were too unfit for service, some areas 69% were too unfit. So badly fed they had not grown properly. Committee on physical deterioration created.
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Competition from Abroad:
By 1900, Germany and USA had overtake Britain, Germany's development linked to healthier more efficient work force, reforms led by Bismark
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Life expectancy:
for poor men and women was about 45. In 1900, there were 163 deaths per thousand. 92% of countries wealth owned by 10%
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Conservatives/ labour party planning to introduce reforms, if the liberals did nothing these other parties would get votes and liberals would lose power.
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David Lloyd George:
Grown up in poverty and hated the attitude towards the poor. In 1908, became chancellor of the exchequer so could spend government money.
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Winston Churchill:
In 1908, became president of the Board of Trade.
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What the Liberals did to help...
Children- Act of 1906 guaranteed every child one free meal a day.14 million meals served up in 1914. By 1914 50% of local authorities had set up meal services. By 1907, every local authority had to set up school medical service.
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By 1912, they also had to provide free treatment. Children and young persons act' of 1908 meant children became protected persons, special courts to deal with youth crime, Borstals for young offenders.
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Elderly people:
DLG first budget- 1908 pensions act. Had to be over 70, receive 5s (single) or 7s 6d (married, later raised to 10s). earn under 31 pnds a year, have lived in the UK for 20 years. 650,000 collected pensions in 1st year, 80,000 less got poor relief.
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Labour exchange Act of 1909, which was before run by volunteers. 3000 people put into jobs by 1903.
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Sick pay:
National insurance act 1911, liberals used friendly societies. people earning under 160 pnds a year had to join. Worker=4d, Employer=3d, State=2d. Liberal posters talked of getting 9d for 4d. 26 weeks of sick pay at 10s, free healthcare.
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9part 2 of national insurance 1911) originally for trades like building and engineering (seasonal unemployment). Worker=2.5d a week, employer=2.5, state=1.75. 7s a week for up to 15 weeks. Not enough to encourage careful saving.
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Reforms only affected 6% of the 30% under the poverty line. Reforms concentrated on towns, not rural. Not much help for the women.
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Reactions to the reforms:
Conservatives opposed the 'nanny state'. Doctors sceptical about health insurance. Friendly societies & insurence comapnies stopped widows getting national insurance benefits. Some workers resented deductions from wages.
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Labour criticised worker contribution, should come from rich. DLG Peoples Budget 1909 raise money for reforms. battle between HOC(liberal majority) and HOL (conservative majority). Constitutional crisis meant HOL lost some power
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Card 2


What does Lassez Faire mean?


To leave alone, eg. the Government did not support the poor.

Card 3


What were the Victorian beliefs of the poor in 1900's?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4




Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Poor law amendment act of 1834:


Preview of the front of card 5
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