Social Psychology

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What are the two states of obedience and describe what they mean?
The agentic state is when an individual follows orders from a higher power (external locus of control), and the autonomous state is when someone acts as an individual, taking responsibility for their own actions (internal locus of control)
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What is moral strain and how can it be reduced?
Moral strain is the pressure of doing something against one's own feelings of right and wrong. It can be reduced by entering the agentic state
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Name 3 strengths of agency theory.
1. Supported by Milgram 2.Supported by Hofling 3.Can be applied to reduce blind obedience 4.Helps explain real life situations
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Name 3 weaknesses of agency theory
1. Social Power Theory 2. More descriptive than explanatory 3. Does not explain individual differences 4. Obedience is more complex than the theory suggests
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What three things impact obedience according to Social Impact Theory?
Number, immediacy and strength
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Name 3 strengths of social impact theory
Generalisable, reliable, research evidence
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Name 3 weaknesses of social impact theory
The theory is static rather than dynamic, it is more descriptive than explanatory, individual differences are not taken into account, cannot explain equal group interactions
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What was the aim of Milgram's experiment?
To see if volunteer participants would obey orders to give potentially harmful shocks to someone they thought was another participant
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Explain Milgram's recruitment process
He placed an ad in a local newspaper offering $4 for participation. 40 volunteers were recruited to take part.
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Where did Milgram's experiment take place?
Yale University
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How was the teacher chosen? (Milgram)
The participant and a confederate drew lots. The lots were rigged so the participant was always the teacher
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What illness did Milgram's confederate complain of before the experiment began?
A heart condition
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What sample shock was given? (Milgram)
45V
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What learning task was used? (Milgram)
Word pairs
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What were the 4 prods used? (Milgram)
Please continue, the experiment requires that you continue, it is absolutely essential that you continue, you have no other choice you must go on
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What were the results of Milgram's experiment?
100% of the participants continued to 300V and 65% gave the maximum shock of 450V
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Name three of Milgram's variations.
Telephonic Instructions, Rundown Office Block, and Ordinary Man
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Explain Milgram's Rundown Office Block variation
The study was disassociated from Yale University, using the same procedure as the original experiment but in a less reputable context. Obedience reduced to 48%
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Explain Milgram's Ordinary Man variation.
The experimenter was also played by a confederate, who the participant believed to be an ordinary man. The experimenter received a phone call and left the room. Obedience reduced to 20%
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Explain Milgram's Telephonic Instructions Variation
The experimenter issued instructions by telephone. Obedience reduced to 22.5%
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What are the four factors affecting obedience?
Personality, Culture, Gender and Situation
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Explain the link between personality and obedience.
An internal locus of control links resistance to obedience
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Name a study that support the link between personality and obedience?
Elms (1998) found a link between occupation and obedience, Milgram's defiant group showed more social responsibility, MIlgram and Elms (1966) suggested that those with an authoritarian personality are more obedient
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Explain a study into culture and obedience
Meeus and Raaijmaker (1986) replicated Milgram in the Netherlands and found no difference, Burger (2009) found no difference in obedience today compared to 1963, Blass (2012) found 61% obedience in the US and 66% obedience elsewhere
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What is the link between gender and obedience?
Obedience in males and females is often the same, but females show more anxiety and tension when obeying
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Explain a study into gender and obedience
Milgram found the same obedience in males and females, Kilham and Mann (1974) replicated Milgram and found 16% obedience in females and 40% obedience in males, Blass (1991) reviewed 9 studies and only found one with gender differences
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What study investigates situation and obedience?
Milgram's variations
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What does Realistic Conflict Theory state about prejudice?
Prejudice arises where there is competition for resources between two or more groups
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How can prejudice between groups be reduced?
By introducing superordinate goals
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Who created Realistic Conflict Theory and when?
Sherif, 1966
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What are the three steps to Social Identity Theory?
Social categorisation, social identification, and social comparison
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Explain how Social Identity Theory explains prejudice.
We automatically categorise ourselves into groups, creating 'in' groups and 'out' groups. We then identify with our 'in' groups and take on group aspects as our own, we then compare our own groups to others, seeing ours as better, creating prejudice
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Who created Social Identity Theory and when?
Tafjel and Turner, 1971
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What is prejudice?
Prejudice is an attitude (usually negative) towards the member of a group based solely on their membership of that group
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What are the two factors that affect prejudice?
Personality and culture
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Explain personality and prejudice in terms of Adorno et al.'s study.
Adorno et al. (1950) stated that people with an authoritarian personality were more likely to be hostile towards other people. They used surveys of anti-Semitism, Facism, and Conservatism, and Thematic Apperception Tests, and link genetics to this
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How does prejudice link to childhood?
Adorno et al. thought that harsh parenting would lead children to believe they could be cruel to those who are weak. The hate and resentment towards parents is repressed and displaced onto weaker members of society
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How can culture affect prejudice?
Culture can be an influence on prejudice if that culture has existing social norms that legitimise prejudiced practice, has strict religious regiments, or laws that endorse prejudice towards targets
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What was the aim of the Robber's Cave experiment?
To investigate intergroup relations over a period of time when various experimentally induced situations occured
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Who were the participants in the Robber's Cave study?
22 eleven year old boys from middle class, Protestant families, amtched for educational and athletic ability
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What were the three stages of the Robber's Cave experiment?
1) Team building activities within groups 2) Competition between groups 3) Cooperation between groups
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What was found at each stage of Robber's Cave?
1) Groups formed their own rules and names 2) Groups showed hostility towards eachother as soon as they found out about the other's existence, this increased with competition 3) Superordinate goals reduced hostility and inter group friendships were f
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Name three strengths of the Robber's Cave Study
High ecological validity, high levels of control, matched groups, supports Social Identity Theory
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Name three weaknesses of the Robber's Cave Study
Boys were aware of audio equipment and staff taking notes, researchers encouraged hostility, not generalisable, fully informed consent was not obtained
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What was the aim of Burger's Study?
To investigate obedience by partially replicating Milgram’s (1963) study to examine whether situational factors affect obedience to an authoritative figure
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What were the ethical steps Burger took?
Two step screening process, told 3 times they could withdraw at anytime, sample shock only 15V, study stopped at 150V, true nature revealed immediately, experimenter was a clinical psychologist, informed consent form
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Who was Burger's sample?
29 men, 41 women, aged 20-81, recruited from adverts, paid $50
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What results did Burger find?
70% continued to 150V, and women were slightly more likely to continue
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Name two strengths of Burger's study.
Highly ethical, generalisable
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Name two weaknesses of Burger's study
Only went up to 150V then extrapolated, lack of mundane realism, low ecological validity, verbal prods removed the right to withdraw, could still cause anxiety
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Card 2

Front

What is moral strain and how can it be reduced?

Back

Moral strain is the pressure of doing something against one's own feelings of right and wrong. It can be reduced by entering the agentic state

Card 3

Front

Name 3 strengths of agency theory.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Name 3 weaknesses of agency theory

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What three things impact obedience according to Social Impact Theory?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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