Social Psychology (Unit 2)

who suggested the 3 different types of conformity? what are they?
Kelman suggested the 3 types of conformity are internalisation, identification and compliance
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what is compliance?
going along with others in public but privately having own beliefs, results in superficial change, behaviour stops as soon as group pressure stops
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what is identification?
conform to group beliefs as they value the group, publicly change beliefs but may not privately believe it, temporary as when person leaves group theres no reason to conform
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what is internalisation?
accept group norms which results in private and public change of beliefs and behaviours, change permanent as attitudes become way person thinks
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who suggested the two main explanations for conformity? what are they?
Deutsch & Gerard suggested Informational social influence and normative social influence as the main explanations of conformity
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what is informational social influence? what behaviour does this include?
when you consider who has better info (you or the group?) and follow behaviour as you believe they're right. Uses cognitive processes as its to do with whats right/
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what are the supporting studies for informational social influence?
Jeness: pps estimated no. of jelly beans in jar & when talked to others estimate moved closer to others. Lucas et al: students showed greater conformity to difficult maths questions than easy.
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what is normative social influence? what processes/behaviour does this concern?
conform to be considered 'normal' and concerns the need to be liked and to gain social approval rather than rejection. emotional process not cognitive as concerns what people think of you and how you feel about being an outsider.
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what is the study for normative social influence? explain.
McGhee and Tevan: students in need of social approval more likely to conform.
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what is the aim of Asch's study? what is it a study on?
CONFORMITY - to assess whether individuals would conform to an obviously wrong answer
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explain the procedure of Asch's study (normal study not control study)
123 male USA students told study on perception, 1 pps in group of 6-8 confeds, 2 cards 1 stand. line & 3 compar. lines to match. 1st few trials confeds gave all right & then start mistakes (36.8% conformity but 75% conform at least 1 wrong ans.)
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what were the results for Asch in the control condition?
36 pps were tested individually to test how accurate individual judgements were (0.04% accurate answers)
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advs of Asch's study?
no demand characteristics as didn't know aim of study
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disadvs of Asch's study?
not reliable as Nicolson replicated study & found different results, unethical as deceived pps & no informed consent, lack of generalisability (all students), lack of ecological validity (artificial task)
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what were the variations of Asch's study? what was the effect of them?
1) task difficulty = lines look same as stand. line (conformity increased) 2) change group size to see if affects group agreement, varied confeds from 3-15 (big group = bigger conformity), 3) unanimity - extra non-conformer decreased pps' conformity
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what is the aim of Milgram's study? what is it a study on?
OBEDIENCE - to measure how obedient pps would be under orders to administer potentially lethal shocks to innocent victim
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what is the procedure of Milgram's study?
newspaper ad. for 40 aged 20-50 male adult (paid), told on memory, pps told man (confed) will be learner & they'll be teacher. confed strapped to chair as far as pps aware (could hear but not see), shock learner for mistake, incr. voltage (15- 450v)
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what were the results for milgram's study?
all pps went up to at least 300v, 14 pps stopped between 300-375v, 65% went all way up to 450v (thought would only be 3%), pps showed extreme signs of distress e.g sweating, all pps debriefed, 84% glad to participate
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advs of milgram's study?
1) supporting research: Hofling - found that 21/22 nurses administered lethal drug dosage to patient under doctors orders, 2) high reliability as lab experiment and standardised procedure 3) no demand characterstics as didn't know aim
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disadvs of mil gram's study?
1) lacks ecological validity as doesn't reflect every day task 2) lacks generalisability - all pps male
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what were milgrams variations?
1) uniform (professor in lab coat replaced by "ordinary" person) obedience decreased to 20%, 2) location (moved from uni to run down office) obedience fell to 47.5%, 3) remote instruction (gave instruction by phone) obedience levels 20.5%
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what are the 3 obedience explanations?
agentic state, legitimacy of authority, binding factors
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what is the agency theory?
2 parts of the theory include the agentic state and autonomous state, we're socialised from a young age to learn that obedience to rules is essential to ensure stability in society but to achieve this a person must give up their free will.
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what is the agentic state?
when a person obeys an authoritative figure they give up some free will as see selves as agent of boss, de-individualised so may go against morals as don't feel responsible, causes moral strain (doing wrong things causes anxiety)
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what are binding factors?
aspects of a situation that minimise the damaging effects of a person's behaviour, reduces moral strain and helps explain why people stay in agentic state despite moral strain
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what is the autonomous state?
in control and acts according to own wishes
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what is the legitimacy of authority?
obedient individuals accept power of authority figures as we learn that those higher in authority should be obeyed.
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who invented the authoritarian personality? what is it?
Adorno - someone with an authoritative personality is someone who is obedient to person above them but hostile to those below, can be provoked by harsh upbringing e.g conditioned love, rigid in opinions/beliefs, distinctive stereotypes about groups
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what are the 2 explanations of resistance to social influence?
social support and locus of control
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what is a locus of control?
makes someone more able to resist social influences because they have more confidence in themselves and are less likely to be influenced by others.
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what are the two types of locus of control? explain each.
internal = blames result of situation on themselves, external = blames result on external factors
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what are the supporting studies of locus of control?
1) Twenge et al - data showed that over time people have become more resistant to obedience and more external. 2) Holland - did milgram study & measured that 37% internals didn't continue to highest level & 23% externals didn't
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what is social support?
means that the presence of people who resist pressure can help others do the same
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what is the supporting study for social support?
Allen and Levine - conformity decreased with dissenter in group in replicated Asch study even when said had bad vision. suggests following someone relieves group pressure.
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what is the minority influence?
when the minority of people persuade others to adopt their beliefs, attitude and behaviours and generally leads to internalisation
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what are the 3 steps to achieve minority influence? why are they effective?
1) CONSISTENCY makes ppl rethink ideas (two types: synchronic= all say same thing, diachronic= say same thing for long time), 2) COMMITMENT (extreme activities) makes majority pay attention 3) FLEXABILITY repeating same argument could be off putting
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which study's results support the minority influence?
Moscovici et al - showed that consistency is the important variable in minority influence
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what was the aim of Moscovici et al?
to investigate the role of consistency of minority in ambitious situations
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what was the procedure of moscovici et al?
172 female pps given eye test to check colour blindness, placed into 32 groups of 6 (4 pps, 2 confeds), told its study of perception, 36 blue slides varying in intensity
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what was the different conditions in moscovici et al and the results?
consistent condition = confeds said all slides green (8.2% agreed with minority) inconsistent condition = said 24 green and 12 blue (1.25% agreement), control condition (0.25% got colour wrong)
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what are the 5 stages of social change?
1) draw attention (provides social proof of issue 2) consistency 3) deeper processing (if view conflicts with norms then start to think about it) 4) argumentation principle (extreme activities get attention) 5) snowball effect (minority view adopted)
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Card 2

Front

what is compliance?

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going along with others in public but privately having own beliefs, results in superficial change, behaviour stops as soon as group pressure stops

Card 3

Front

what is identification?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is internalisation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

who suggested the two main explanations for conformity? what are they?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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