Social psychology 10

What defines a close relationship?
Behavioural interdependence, emotional attachment, need fulfilment
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How does behavioural interdependence define a close relationship?
The actions of one person must have an impact on the other, it must be mutual, strong, frequent and enduring
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How does emotional attachment define a close relationship?
There must be mutual feelings of love and affection
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How does need fulfilment define a close relationship?
They must meet some of our basic needs (emotional and/or physical intimacy (mutual), social integration/affiliation, reassurance of our self-worth)
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What are some of the dimensions relationships can vary on?
Intensity, commitment , emotion and sexuality
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How can relationships vary in intensity?
Some are intense, others are tranquil
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How can relationships vary in commitment?
Some are committed for the long haul, others for the time being
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How can relationships vary in emotion?
Can evoke a wide array of feelings from joy to anger and despiar
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How can relationships vary in sexuality?
Sex and intimacy are not the same thing, some intimate relationships are sexual, some are not, some sexual relationships are intimate, some are not
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What are the two factors related to interpersonal attraction?
Physical and psychological factors
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How do physical factors affect interpersonal attraction?
Looks matter! They are a good predictor of attraction, good looking people also: get better marks at uni, better job outcomes in interviews, earn more money and get more lenient outcomes in the legal system.
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How does attractiveness relate to interpersonal attraction and children?
Babies demonstrate a preference for attractive faces, adults think attractive children are smarter.
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What is the halo effect? In relation to physical attractiveness stereotypes
A specific type of 'confirmation bias' positive feelings in on area cause ambiguous or neutral traits to be viewed positively , 'What is beautiful is good'
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Explain the study into physical attractiveness
People given 3 photos (attract/neutral/unattract and asked to judge personality. Attractive photos rated higher on socially desirable traits, were happier in life, would have happier marriages and better careers.
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What type of faces to people prefer?
A picture of averaged facts, this is because it is closer to our mental prototype of a face, so when we encounter a novel face that resembles our prototype, we perceive it as more attractive
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Why do we perceive average faces as more attractive?
Because they are more symmetrical. More masculine features like cheek-bone prominence and longer lower face significantly correlate with attractiveness ratings
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Why is face symmetry good?
People with symmetrical faces are rated as healthier, more dominant, more extraverted, men with symmetrical faces have more sexual partners.
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What is the reason we rate face symmetry as good?
Evolution reasons - signifies health and reproductive fitness
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What is the matching phenomenon?
There is a strong tendency for individuals to choose partners with a similar level of attractiveness , this also predicts longer-lasting relationships. This is a tendency, not a law
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What is proximity?
Simple physical proximity can lead to liking because we tend to like people who are closer to us
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Can proximity predict disliking?
Yes if the initial interaction is negative
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What does proximity allow for?
Social interaction but does not determine the quality of the interaction
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What is exposure?
The more exposure we have to a stimulus the more positively we evaluate it.
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What is the mere exposure effect?
That after a while of seeing things (not just people, objects) people like them
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How does evolution determine who we are attracted too? (women)
Women are more attracted to a partner who will provide stability and security and are more selective in their choice of partners as reproduction is physically and time demanding
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How does evolution determine who we are attracted too? (men)
Men are less selective in their choice of partners and are likely to have numerous partners this is because reproduction is less constraining. So they are more interested in a woman's reproductive health that is evidenced by youth and beauty.
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According do a study how to men and women change in terms of being demanding as they age?
Women become less demanding as they age, men become more demanding as they age
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What is a criticism of the idea evolution determines who we are attracted too?
Society teaches men and women to value different things. Men are conditioned to value physical attractiveness and women are taught to value support and stability. Also many studies look at desires not what people actually do.
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What attracts us to others psychologically?
We are social animals with a fundamental need to belong/affiliate and maintain and form strong, stable interpersonal relationships
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What does the lack of attachments lead to?
greater levels of stress, poorer psychological + somatic health, heart attacks, TB, cancer, poor immune systems, more instances of suicide
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What sort of people are we attracted to? (psychologically)
We are more attracted to people who hold similar attitudes/interests and values to our own.
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Why are we more attracted to people with similar values?
Similarity validates our own self-worth, if we assume dissimilarity we think they have negative personality traits
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What is balance theory?
Relationships are balanced if the affect valence in system multiplies out to a positve result.
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What were the results of a study looking at My enemy's enemy is my friend?
People gave more help when the harsh student condemned + when nice student was praised.
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What is the two broad types of love?
Passionate and companionate
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What is passionate love?
Strong feelings of longing, desire and excitement towards a special person
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What is companionate love?
Mutual understanding with deep affection and caring
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What happens when you experience passionate love?
physical arousal (heart rate, shortness of breath), engages brain regions associated with reward + with neurotransmitter related o euphoria. Also linked to oxytocin which is linked to relationship-related events. (intimacy, ******,child birth, trust)
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What does companionate love link too?
Feelings of mutual respect and trust, less emotional volatility,
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Where is companionate love found?
In long-term relationships and good friendships.
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What is Sternberg's triangular theory of love?
involves three core components and their connections (passion, intimacy and commitment) . from these components we can conceive of 8 types of love
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what is passion in Sternberg's triangular theory of love?
Complusive thoughts and sexual attraction
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What is intimacy in Sternberg's triangular theory of love?
Sharing of feelings, emotions, etc
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What is commitment in Sternberg's triangular theory of love?
The decision to maintain love
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What relationship do you have with no passion, intimacy and commitment?
non-love
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What relationship do you have with just intimacy? (Sternberg's triangular theory of love)
friendship
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What relationship do you have with just passion? (Sternberg's triangular theory of love)
infatuation
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What relationship do you have with just commitment? (Sternberg's triangular theory of love)
empty love
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What relationship do you have with passion and intimacy? (Sternberg's triangular theory of love)
romantic love
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What relationship do you have with intimacy and commitment? (Sternberg's triangular theory of love)
companionate love
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What relationship do you have with passion and commitment? (Sternberg's triangular theory of love)
fatuous love
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What relationship do you have with passion, intimacy and commitment? (Sternberg's triangular theory of love)
Consummate love
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What is the social exchange theory?
People are motivated to maximise benefits and minimise cost in relationships
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What is the comparison level ?
The expectations for the relationship
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What do we compare with the comparison level?
We compare the perceived outcomes of the relationship with the comparison level (expectations for the relationship)
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What is the comparison level for alternatives?
The lowest level of rewards a person is willing to accept from alternative relationships or from being alone, if there is no alternative or fear of being alone they stay
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What is the equity theory?
People strive to achieve fairness in relationships and feel distressed if they perceive unfairness. costs/benefits ratio should be approximately the same for both parties. Equitable does not mean equal
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How do people feel if they under benefit in relationships?
angry, resentful and deprived
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How do people feel if they over-benefit in relationships?
guilty and uncomftable
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Who expresses more dissatisfaction over-benefited women or over-benefited men?
over-benefited women
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Who feels more aggrieved under-benefited men or under-benefited women?
Under-benefited men
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What is the investment model of commitment?
Investments are what we put into relationships that cannot be taken back (money, time, effort), the more we invest the harder it is to leave (to loose the investment)
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What is satisfaction in relationships?
The positive vs negative affect experienced in a relationship
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What is the quality of alternatives in a relationship?
The perceived desirability of the best available alternative to the relationship
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What is the investment size in a relationship?
The magnitude and importance of resources attached to a relationship
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What is the commitment level in a relationship?
The intent to persist long-term, a sense of dependence comprised of (additive) : wanting to persist (Satisfaction), needing to persist (investment) and having no choice (no alternatives)
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What is commitment?
A sense of allegiance established with regard to the source of one's dependence.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How does behavioural interdependence define a close relationship?

Back

The actions of one person must have an impact on the other, it must be mutual, strong, frequent and enduring

Card 3

Front

How does emotional attachment define a close relationship?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How does need fulfilment define a close relationship?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are some of the dimensions relationships can vary on?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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