Social psychological theories of aggression

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  • Created by: Natalie'
  • Created on: 03-01-16 18:43
Social learning theory
By Bandura and Walters. Claims that we learn behaviour by observing other and copying to get the desired reward (vicarious) Mediating factors - ARRM.
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Bandura's Study
Children aged 3-5 watched clip of adults either being aggressive or kind to bobo doll. Found child acted the same way the adult they watched. Bigger effect if they were the same sex (boy watched man). Supports social learning theory.
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Success of modelling
1) share a trait with the model (age, sex, status) (lower class not likely to copy upper class) 2) if they pay attention to the action 3) consistency (repeat behaviour and always get desired result) 4) self efficacy (if they believe they can do it)
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Strength 1
Until this study, it was thought that it was good for children to watch violence as it discouraged them from displaying the same behaviour. Bandura's study changed our view on violence and some child rearing practices.
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IDA - Real world application
Nathan Martinez aged 17 killed his step mum and half sister with a rifle after watching natural born killer 10 times. The movie was said to have an influence on his aggressive behaviour.
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IDA - free will
Suggests we have free will over our behaviour. If someone does something that doesn't produce a desired outcome then we will choose not to copy it. We also consider expectancies and self efficacy.
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Support - Baron and Richarson
Found that people exposed to physical punishment during childhood often used violence later in life. Aggressive parent = aggressive child. Supports Bandura's study. Could be explained using role models (parent)
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IDA - real world application
Gang member are often violent and this increases their status within the group (reward) so other members are more likely to be aggressive as they would want the same reward
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What is deindividuation
Losing one's sense of individuality. Can be by becoming part of a crowd or indentifying with a particular role (wearing uniform or mask) (KKK all wear same clothes, lose identity, act violently)
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Why are deindividuated people aggressive - Le Bon
B/c they feel less identifiable in a group so normal restraints are lost. Shared responsibility reduced individual guilt. They are anonymous so can't get caught.
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Prentice-Dunn and Rogers
Private self awareness - thought, values, standards of yourself. Private self awareness - concern over the impression you present when you are aware of judged. Reduction in either can lead to aggression.
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Zimbardo
Deindividuation in females. Group 1 - White lab coats, hoods over faces. Group 2 - large name tag. Saw nice/rude interview. Performance rated w/ electric shocks (good=less shocks). Groupp 1 shocked both women the same. Group 2 shocked nice woman less
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Rehm
Aggression in handball. Team 1 wore own clothes. Team 2 - orange shirts. In boys, team 2 was more aggressive than team 1. In girls - no difference. Suggests loss of individuality = aggressive. Bio factors - explain gender difference.
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IDA - real world application
People in the army all wear the same uniform, could be explained using deindividuation.
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Diener - trick or treating
Group 1 - all anonymous. Group 2 - all but one anonymous. Group 3 - non anonymous. Anonymous kids in a group = more likely to steal extra. Anonymous w/ one responsible even more likely to steal as blame was on someone else. Theory applies to all ages
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IDA - cross cultural evidence
Watson found that in 24 cultures, warriors who wore face and body paint to hide indentity were more aggressive the those who didn't. Suggests anonymity contributes to increased levels of aggression due to deindividuation.
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Card 2

Front

Bandura's Study

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Children aged 3-5 watched clip of adults either being aggressive or kind to bobo doll. Found child acted the same way the adult they watched. Bigger effect if they were the same sex (boy watched man). Supports social learning theory.

Card 3

Front

Success of modelling

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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Strength 1

Back

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Card 5

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IDA - Real world application

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