what are the four aspects of social psychology?
1)thinking and feeling 2) relating 3)belonging 4)applying
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who invented social psychology and when?
British scholars such as David Hume and Adam Smith (1700s) wrote about emotions and how people are influenced by their interactions with other people, german scholars wrote about issues of the self, society... began to emerge late 1800s early 1900s
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what influence social psych?
behaviourism:impact of rewards and punishments attitudes and behaviour can be reinforced,understanding development Gestalt psych:+ important to look at the whole rather than individual parts historical context:Darwinian theory e.g. Nazi Germany
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what is personality?
A set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that refer to differences among individuals in a typical tendency to behave, think, or feel in some conceptually related ways, across a variety of relevant situations, and across time
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when investigating human nature, what is the universal?
everyone tends to be similar Social psychology
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what is the in-between?
everyone tends to be similar to some people, yet different from other people Personality psychology – Nomothetic approach
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what is the unique
every person is different from everyone else Idiographic approach to personality
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what is ideographic approach?
Focus on uniqueness of individuals,Difficult to detect general laws of person Qualitative methods - Case studies - Interviews - Narratives, In-depth ‘understanding’ of the individual (but not possible to test whether or not these ideas are correct),
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what is nomothetic approach?
Focus on large groups of people, More superficial understanding of a specific individual, Allows to find general laws of personality, Quantitative methods - Questionnaires (self- and observer reports) - Direct observations,
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what is 1.1 Internal-consistency reliability
The extent to which the items of a measure are correlated with each other
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what is Interater reliability?
The degree of agreement between the scores of different raters/observers
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what is Test-retest reliability?
The degree of consistency between scores across different measurement occasions
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what is Content validity?
The extent to which a measure assess all relevant features of the construct, and does not assess irrelevant features
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what is Construct validity?
The measure assess the same construct that it is intended to asses
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what is convergent validity?
correspondence with measures assessing similar (positive relations) or opposite (negative relations) characteristics
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what is Discriminant validity?
correspondence with measures assessing characteristics unrelated to the one the scale is intended to measure
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what is Criterion validity?
Relations with relevant outcome variables; also called predictive validity
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what are self-reports?
structured questionnaires a) Every p is asked the same set of Qs b) there is a fixed set of response alternatives for every Q- most widely used to measure personality- most personality inventories assess several personality traits with a few items
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what are Observer reports?
Analogous to self-reports but someone else provides the information about the ‘target’ person - The observer can be a spouse, a parent, a friend, a colleague, a classmate, but must know the ‘target’ fairly well - might be more objective
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what are direct observations?
- Directly observing a person’s behaviour - Frequency and intensity of behaviour that indicate a certain trait - in his/her natural habitat or in an artificial setting - very informative - time consuming, expensive, a lot of effort
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what is biodata?
Life outcome data:records of a person’s life relevant to an individual’s personality e.g. phone bills,speeding tickets, grade point average. objective behavioural indicators- not clear what information is relevant or accurate as indicator foreperson
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what are some personality inventories?
- The 16 Personality Factors Questionnaire (16PF), The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)
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what are big five framework?
has 44 items, Openness to Experience - Conscientiousness - Extraversion - Agreeableness - Neuroticism
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what is HEXACO Personality Inventory Revised (HEXACO-PI-R)
Honesty-Humility: sincerity, fairness, greed- avoidance, modesty - Emotionality - eXtraversion - Agreeableness - Conscientiousness - Openness to Experience
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what are internal traits?
ow observability primarily thoughts and feelings e.g., anxious, self-esteem
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what are external traits?
high observability primarily overt behaviour e.g., charming, talkative
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what is symbolic interaction?
seeing oneself from the outside and how others see us, being aware of ourselves is crucial to control ourselves and change ourselves
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what is self concept?
complete set of beliefs people have about themselves
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what did Markus (1977) show?
participants who were self-schematic on independence/dependance, more quickly identify words associated with their scheme and able to to recall experiences better if demonstrated their schema
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what is multiple role theory?
complexity of self is important-have multiple self identities (open new experiences but risk of failure ). schemas too extreme can have negative effects
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what is self concept clarity?
extent to which self- schemas are clearly/confidently defined and consistent . helps us deal with stresses/injustices
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how can you measure self-concept clarity?
diary studies, research method that requires participants to keep daily activities/event for period of time
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what is self- awareness?
the psychological state of being aware of your characteristics/feelings/behaviours, develops over time about 18 months
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what is public self-awareness?
awareness of public aspects of the self and how others see this, e.g. done by adhering to social norms and societal standards, public self-consciousness
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what is private self awareness?
awareness of private aspects, can have positive/negative consequences depending on what aspects focus on. being in front of a mirror makes us more self aware and more likely to adhere to our attitudes
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what is biological basis of self-awareness?
anterior cingulate cortex is responsible for controlling/monitoring intentional behaviour, activated when people become self aware
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what is self-perception theory?
people learn about self by examining thoughts/feelings/behaviours.
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what is self discrepancy theory?
focus on peoples awareness of discrepenicjeis of actual self and perceived and ought selves Actual self: how person presently sees themselves Ideal self: how person wants to see themselves Ought self:how person thinks ought to be. want to become idea
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what is regulatory focus theory?
Builds on self-discrepancy theory People have two distinct regulatory systems Promotion (approach orientated in constructing the self) Prevention (cautious and avoidant in doing so)
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what is control theory of self regulation?
People test the self against public and private standards and change behaviour if there is a discrepancy - Cognitive feedback loop
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what is social comparison theory?
people compare themselves with others. Upward social comparison, Can have positive/negative effect on self-esteem. temporal comparison can compare self with outpost self or anticipate future self (denigrate past self)
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what is self evaluation maintenance model?
People are able to maintain their self-esteem when making upward comparisons, exaggerate abilities and ignore if others are better...
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what is sociometer theory?
Self-esteem acts as an internal ‘barometer’ of social inclusion Signs of exclusion lowered self-esteem and negatiev emotions ti People change their behaviour to be included
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consequences of self esteem?
aggression(People with lower self-esteem are more prone to antisocial acts). narcissism(can become aggressive when given criticism)
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how does self presentation change peoples behaviour?
people want to feel more publicly stable
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what is self verification?
To confirm what we believe to be true about ourselves (Kwang & Swann, 2010) Irrespective of the positivity/negativity of the information Reassuring and helps achieve cognitive consistency
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what is self-enhancement?
People seek positive views of the self and seek to alter negative views
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what is illusion of control?
People like to have control over their lives and lack of control is associated with anxiety, overestimate this but want to feel we are
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what are communication elements?
sender,message, channel (medium) and receiver
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what is language?
Rule-governed structuring of meaningless sounds (phonemes) into basic units of meaning (morphemes) Further structured by morphological rules into words and syntactic rules to make sentences, meaning guided by semantic rules-grammar
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what price do humans pay for linguistic competence?
overcrowded teeth, greater likelihood of choking
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what is Austins (1962) theory of speech acts? Language can achieve actions with three characteristics which are...
1) non-ambiguous (literal meaning) – locution e.g., in “I’m here” the locution is that the person is actually here 2) the act performed by the utterance –illocution e.g the apology 3)unintended effects the utterance might have –perlocution e.g making
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what does illocutionary effect conveyed as?
illocutionary effect is often conveyed as an indirect speech act e.g., “I wonder when the train leaves”
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why are we polite and how?
A great deal of difference between what is said and what is implied can be attributed to politeness,Indirect communication is often more polite
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what did Bont (1983) show?
asked bilingual Hong Kong Chinese students to complete Rokeach Value Survey half responded to questions in English, half to a Chinese translation those who answered in English endorsed Western values more than those who responded to the Chinese versi
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types of language effects?
masculine generic language:: Use of masculine words such as ‘man’ and ‘mankind’ to represent people in general, Verbal labels applied to groups homosexual=****, saying is believing effect: person memory of individuals affected by what others say
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what is sapir/whorf hypothesis?
language entirely determines thought people who speak different languages see the world in entirely different ways view not so accepted anymore
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what is paralanguage?
features that accompany speech volume, stress, pitch, pauses can change the meaning of what we say
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what is Shaws Pygmalion (1951)?
how we speak relates to how we are perceived, our speech defines our social situation
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what is lexicon?
different words meaning the same thing e.g., ‘flip flops’, ‘jandals’, ‘thongs’
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what is most significant variation between people?
accent- occurs at phonological level
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what is RP?
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what are judgements of 'class speech'
lower-class speakers judged less favourably than middle class, biased effects of ethnic accents on evaluations
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what did of Krauss and Chiu (1998) find?
rapid speech rates associated with high ratings of competence, sociability, trustworthiness long silent pauses associated with low ratings of competence utterance length associated with ratings of dominance
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elevated pitch associated with perceptions of deceit and emotional instability but in other studies, high vocal pitch associated with high ratings of competence
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what does Lakoff (1973, 1975) and the ‘female speech register show?
lexical level fewer expletives(dear me not oh ****), empty adjectives(adorable), syntactic level- tac questions(hot today, isn't it?)prosodic level making it a Q by rising intonation, pragmatic level-more indirect speech(its loud not turn it down)
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what is speech accommodation theory?
we alter our speech to the situation to meet certain goals (affiliation, being understood, desire to help the listener) can adapt to the social orientations that people have to one another
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what is Speech convergence?
merging of accent/speech style increases interpersonal approval and liking
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what is interpersonal distance?
A marker of intimacy People will protect their personal space to maintain their desired level of intimacy
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what are the five types of touch?
Professional/functional, Social/polite, Friendship/warmth, Love and intimacy, Sexual
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about eye contact
People spend about 1/3 of conversation time engaged in eye contact, A way of expressing intimacy But not always desirable
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about Nonverbal sensitivity
nonverbal cues are available as potential indicators (actual or perceived) of the characteristics and feelings of their owners are receivers sensitive to these cues?
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what does PONS stand for?
Profile of Nonverbal Sensitivity test, measures individual differences in sensitivity to nonverbal cues
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about person perception?
women better at reading non-deceptive facial expressions improvements with age other more complex relationships doctors who are good at reading body cues have more satisfied patients verbally sensitive students learn more than less sensitive ones
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individual differences in dominance are related to differences in nonverbal communication e.g., dominant people more likely to invade space, sit higher, interrupt more etc.
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people are often able to tell what a person’s relationship is with another person, by nonverbal cues such as facial expression also status in relationships
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however, facial expressions / changes aren’t very helpful in aiding people to detect deception most useful when people are actually motivated to hide their lying (‘motivation impairment effect’)
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about social influence
Nonverbal cues are dramatically influenced by the presence of others ‘mirroring’ someone’s posture or gestures, mimicry gaze, pauses etc. turn-taking, reciprocity
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occurs more when people like each other smiles and affectionate gazes generally linked to liking, attachment, relationship satisfaction hostility can also be reciprocated positivity and co-ordination increases rapport between people
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what are attitudes?
favourable or unfavourable evaluations of something or someone, exhibited in one’s thoughts, feelings, or reported intention
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what dd LaPiere (1934) show?
LaPiere (1934) Wrote letters to 251 restaurateurs, hoteliers. 92% of the 128 who replied said they would not accept “members of the Chinese race” in their establishment.but most did when chinese couple went in
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People may not always know what their attitudes are Implicit (unconscious) vs. explicit (conscious) attitudes e.g., in racism and “implicit prejudice” So self-reported attitudes aren’t always accurate
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private self-consciouness, more self-conscious if look in a mirror
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what is the theory of panned behaviour?
attitude toward a behaviour & subjective norms &percieved behavioural control-intention-behaviour
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what are Implementation intentions
transfers behavioural control to the environment Not “I will study hard for exam”, but “When Glee finishes tomorrow night, I will take out my textbook and make notes from Chapter 4”
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what is mere exposure effect?
people tend to develop a preference for things merely because they are familiar with them.
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about botox(muscular-emotional paralysis?
- makes people slower to read sentences referring to anger and sadness,reduces people’s ability to detect emotions on other people’s faces. less likely to report negative emotions
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how does bodily posture affect attitudes?
Semantic – we unconsciously evaluate what our gestures signify, this “leaks”, Self-perception theory
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what is Self-perception theory
We lack direct access to our own attitudes So infer them from our behaviour Application: “foot in the door” technique of persuasion
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what is cognitive dissonance theory? (CDT)
Negative affect when we hold two simultaneously accessible thoughts or beliefs (“cognitions”) that seem inconsistent (“dissonant”). To reduce this tension, we need to change one of these thoughts.
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what does dissonance theory predict?
when our actions aren't fully explained by external rewards/coercion, we will experience dissonance, which can be reduced by believing what we have done
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cognitive dissonance with monkeys
After being led to believe they had “rejected” a Skittle, monkeys rejected it again 60% of the time
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what are 4 functions of attitudes?
Utilitarian:Social rewards for feeling good about the blind but bad about women who drink while pregnant Knowledge:consistent attitudes help us deal with things quickly+effectively
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Ego-defensive function: A positive attitude to yourself (i.e., high self-esteem) can protect you from anxiety about death... Value expressive function: Feeling good about disadvantaged groups affirms deeper values like equality and fairness
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what is need for knowledge
This innate curiosity is stronger when something “rides” on the social judgement
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what is need to affirm?
After doing poorly on a task, people think the task is less important wha
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when does person work?
right source, message and target
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what is the source?
Attractiveness, likeability and similarity, The more attractive a person, the more successful the persuasive attempt Most successful when attractive and emotive. The more similar to us they seem, the more successful, more influenced by group members
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Those perceived to be expert/competent are more persuasive than those who lack credibility and trustworthy. People seem more trustworthy if they speak fast
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what is the message?
Long messages more effective if strong, but less so if weak.Strong messages = facts, central to the issue Weak messages = peripheral to the issue. If message is too distant from the target’s attitude, it is likely to be ignored … or reacted against
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fear arousal, optimal amount of fear is optimal e,g. only 3 seats left. Advertisements most effective when people are exposed to them 2-3 times a week, but effect can wear after too much exposure
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Factual advertising (e.g., statistics, technical details) appeals more to analytical people.Evaluative advertising (e.g., a particular opinion) appeals more to disengaged or disinterested people
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what is the method?
Framing: A message which emphasizes gain rather than something negative.Two-sided messages:When persuasive attempts acknowledge counterarguments they are more successful, such as when a defence lawyer,pre-empts an argument from the prosecution
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Visual & face-to-face channels are best.Primacy effect:Information presented first is the most persuasive Recency effect Information presented last sometimes most persuasive as people forget what they were presented with first, especially if a delay
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what about gender?
Women more susceptible to persuasive attempts (especially face-to-face)
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what about age?
People generally open to attitude change across lifespan but core attitudes and values resistant to changethroughoutLate adolescents and young adults most susceptible, probably because have less stable attitudes and show less resistance to authority.
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what about mood?
Good feelings enhance positive thinking which can lead to impulsive decision-making
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what is The elaboration likelihood model?
Variations in persuasion depend on the likelihood that participants will engage in elaboration of (thinking about) the arguments relevant to the issue. think about message=its central cues (scientific arguments), have been persuaded via central route
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don't process as much=persuaded by the more superficial aspects of a message they are attending to its peripheral cues (glossy images) peripheral route
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what is The heuristic-systematic model?
Systematic processing occurs when targets actively scan and process the arguments put forward in a message. occurs when people do not carefully consider the arguments, but resort to cognitive ‘shortcuts’ instead, it is easier than weigh up pros/cons
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what determines processing route?
good mood, person on central route generally more effective, Distraction decreases ability to generate counterarguments Makes people more persuaded by peripheral cues and weak arguments
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What can people do to persuade others?
Ingratiation and reciprocity, Door-in-the-face technique, That’s-not-all technique, Foot-in-the-door technique, Lowball tactic
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what is ingratiation?
Making the target like you in order to persuade them Can backfire if too obvious Too much flattery Suspicion of ulterior motives
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what is Reciprocity principle?
Doing a favour for a person before asking them to do something for you People are more likely to be persuaded after receiving a favour , depends on social penalties
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what is door in the face?
Making a large, unrealistic request before making a smaller, more realistic request that is likely to be successful
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what is That’s-not-all technique?
The influencer offers a buyer something at a high price, wait for a while as buyer likely to say no, offer an incentive, feel like seller generous so buy it
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what is The foot-in-the-door effect?
The influencer asks for a small favour which is almost universally granted, then asked for larger related favour nd since already committed likely to grant it
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what is The low-ball tactic?
Influencer suddenly adds unattractive conditions to something after the person has agreed to do it, Since the person is already committed, they are more likely to comply with the large request
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what is reactance?
When people react strongly against blatant or persistent influence attempts because they are direct threats to personal freedom
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what is boomerang effect?
Threats to personal freedom leading to defiant responses
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what is forewarning to affect it?
Prior knowledge of a persuasion attempt that often renders the attempt less effective
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what is Attitude inoculation?
Presenting people with weak, attitude-inconsistent arguments prior to a stronger persuasive attempt helps them to resist the message
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what is selective avoidance?
People’s tendency to filter out information which is inconsistent with their pre-existing attitudes
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what is Attitude polarisation?
People’s tendency to evaluate mixed information in a way that strengthens their pre-existing attitudes
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what is Biased assimilation
People’s tendency to evaluate counterattitudinal information as biased or unreliable
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what is Parental Investment Theory?
the time and energy devoted to the care of individual offspring In most species, parental investment differs between sexes
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what speeches do males are mire heavy investment?
several insects, fish, seahorses
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what did trivers 1972 show about the lesser investing sex?
more competitive with members of its own sex especially over gaining access to members of other sex is more aggressive takes more risks dies earlier matures later is less fussy about choice of mate; willing to mate more quickly, at low cost,
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what are males better at?
are bigger, more competitively aggressive, take more risks, less choosy especially in casual/short-term relationships, die earlier, mature later,
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what is sexual strategy theory?
evolutionary psychologists construe human sexual preferences as being part of a sexual strategy, designed by evolution to maximise our chances of transmitting our genes.Assumption: sexual preferences affected by genes; shaped by evolution & pressures
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what did Bus and Schmitt, 1993 show?
Long-term mating:extended courtship, heavy investment,being in love;dedication of resources,long period of time, to the mating relationship& ensuing offspring.A feature of **** sapiens. male pref: youth, health, attractive female pref:status,maturity
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Short-term mating Fleeting sexual encounters without long-term commitment; “pulling” or casual sex. Both men and women are expected to engage in short-term mating, but men more so.
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what happened in Clark and Hatfield?
Averagely-attractive male and female confederates propositioned strangers of the opposite sex on campus, 75% males agreed 0% females agreed
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sexual strategies for males and females?
quantity not quality for men, Women do not really get to pass on more genes by having more mates; there is little or no point in seeking a high number of short-term partners. women can benefit from short-term mating if it gives them access to better
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what are key predictions of sexual strategy theory?
Men will desire more sexual variety, Men tend to more actively seek mateships than women, Men require less time to elapse than women before consenting to sexual intercourse,
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what was found in schmitt and others 2003?
16,000 participants in 52 countries, 100 men, 100 women from each country. Time known measure, Short-term seeking measure.. men desired 3x more partners, western europe girls only ones want sex
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what did Gangestad and others show?
Differences across menstrual cycle, esp. around ovulation, in: Choice of clothing, flirtation, Attractiveness to men, Male partners’ “guarding” of sexual partners, Mate preferences, olfactory sensitivity to male hormones(sensitivity to the scent of
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what is key criticism of Schmitt data?
even if we accept that the sex differences are real, is the evolutionary approach the only, or even the best, explanation? Is it really scientifically viable?
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what is Eagly and Wood’s (1999) appeal to social structure?
accept biological differences: e.g., men are bigger, more physically powerful; women more biologically committed to children. They accept that these biological differences affect mate preference so male more role of gatherer, women role of carer.
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they deny necessary biological differences in mate preference; rather, they argue that mate preference is determined by these social roles.
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the theatrical battle
The assumption is usually that the human EEA was the pleistocene era; humans were hunter-gatherers confronting large prey; men were the hunters, women the gatherers and carers.
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what does lack of close relationships lead to?
Depression, loneliness, alienation Ostracism Anger, aggression
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what is interpersonal attraction?
We often have a ‘gut’ reaction to a person Social psychologists have identified several key factors associated with attraction Physical factors: Appearance, Proximity. Psychological factors: Attitude similarity Mutual liking
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what are Physical determinants of attraction?
people completed a personality & aptitude tests before being matched for a social dance Physical attractiveness rated.When participants rated their partner:Personality and aptitude were poor predictors of ratings,Only physical attractiveness matter
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why is it good to be good looking?
more likely to get dates, better marks at uni, be successful at a job interview, earn more money, treated better in legal system
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why is Physical attractiveness a stereotype
Tendency to assume that attractive people possess other socially desirable traits in addition to their looks, Becomes self-fulfilling
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what is attractive?
Wide variation but strong consensus both within and between cultures, average faces seem to be most attractive, mental prototype of a face and therefore more familiar and easier to process
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what is a prototypical face a marker of?
biological ‘quality’ A more diverse gene pool A stronger, better mate
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when are women most attractive?
Fertility and status When ovulating, women prefer the smell of t-shirts worn by symmetrically-faced men Ovulating strippers earn more tips Women rated as more attractive when at their most fertile Preferences are driven by biological factors
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what is The matching phenomenon?
People tend to be attracted to others who are about the same level of physical attractiveness as themselves Matched couples tend to have longer-lasting relationships.People can compensate/make up for looks by compensating like wealth, status, persona
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what about Familiarity and proximity?
Finding someone familiar or being close to them can facilitate attraction, People prefer faces that look like their own, often friends with those who live closet to us, the propinquity effect
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what is dorm study?
Asked 300 MIT dormitory residents to list closest friends Looked at where listed friends lived within the dormitory One door away: 41% chance being listed as a close friend As number of doors increases, chances decrease; four doors away only 10% l
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what is The mere exposure effect
At first, new things make us feel uncomfortable The more we are exposed to them, the more they become familiar If there is no harm, familiarity liking
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about Anticipation increases liking
Anticipation of future interaction can increase liking, helps form positive relationships, Darley and Berscheid: Female students receive vague info about 2 women. 1 woman was going to meet students immediately after.liked one about to meet more
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When an initial reaction is negative, repeated exposure will decrease liking. If initial reaction is positive, repeated exposure will increase liking. Proximity can sometimes lead to hostility, domestic violence, neighbourhood disputes
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about Virtual relationships?
Many modern relationships are not dependent on physical proximity,Social networking Online dating But people can conceal aspects of themselves they don’t like, Increased time online is associated with feelings of depression and loneliness
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what did Dutton and Aron show?
Asked to cross a shaky or stable bridge to pass it to the experimenter (male/female).Arousal felt by crossing the shaky bridge was transferred to the female experimenter- more attraction.When the arousal caused by one stimulus is added to the arousa
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what is need to affiliate?
As fundamental to our psychological wellbeing as our needs for food and water are to our physical wellbeing
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what is balance theory?
People compare their attitudes with others & reach balance if theres similarity.Balance enhances positive feelings& attraction Attitude dissimilarity causes imbalance People with similar personalities, interpersonal/communication skills more compati
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what is The reciprocity principle? and study
We like people who like us. Dittes & Kelley (1956) Put people into discussion groups and told them that their fellow group members liked or disliked them Participants who thought they were liked were more attracted to their group
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what about culture?
Many aspects of attraction appear universal. However, people prefer generally to date within their own ethnic group.Social factors such as family approval are also important determinants of attraction
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what is Social exchange theory?
Economic approach based on relationship ‘costs’ and ‘rewards’ and the likelihood they could have a better relationship with someone else. OUTCOMES = REWARDS – COSTS
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what is Equity theory?
Outcomes need to be proportionate to contributions. People want fairness. (A’s REWARDS–COSTS)÷A’s INPUTs= (B’s REWARDS – COSTS)÷B’s INPUTS.People attempt to restore balance for the relationship to succeed
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what is Reinforcement?
We like people who are associated with positive feelings, Even if they have nothing to do with the reward. We like people who are present when something good happens.Reinforcement-affect model.People are liked/disliked on if associated with +/- feeli
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what is passionate love?
Intense feelings Uncontrollable thoughts Deep longing Physiological ‘symptoms’ The feeling of being ‘in love’ (Berscheid, 1997) Biological components Release of dopamine associated with rewards. Activates the brains reward system
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what is Companionate love?
Deep, secure feelings (Hatfield, 1987) Unfrenzied Common in relationships that were once passionate
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whats Sernbergs theory of love?
Love can be mapped onto a triangle involving… Intimacy Passion Commitment
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what is eros?
passionate, love is all consuming, sex is important
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what is ladus?
game-playing, love is game sex a sport
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what is storge?
companionate, love grow from friendship sex less important
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what is mania?
possessive, love is intense and jealous, sex is reassurance
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what is agape?
selfless, love is faithful and sex is viewed as a gift
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what is prama?
logical, practical and realistic love, sex is a reward
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what are gender differences in love styles?
Men score higher on ludus, mania and pragma than women
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what is secure attachment and % of people?
Caregiver was responsive. This person is well liked and trusting, 56%
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what is avoidant attachment and % of people?
Caregiver was distant. This person finds intimacy difficult for fear of rejection. 25%
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what is anxious/ambivalent attachment?
Caregiver was inconsistent. This person is anxious and worried about reciprocation. 19%
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about family relationships?
Relationships with siblings are important determinants of a child’s peer relationship success School bullies are more likely to have had negative sibling relationships
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about Maintaining relationships
Commitment is the wish or intention to stay in a relationship.Rusbult’s (1983) investment model of commitment People weigh up the rewards, costs and comparisons Can explain why people stay in abusive relationships
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What is a group?
Interact with one another, Perceive the self as belonging to a group, Are interdependent, Have a common goal, Have a joint association to satisfy a need, Have a structure of norms or rules, Influence each other
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how do groups form?
Forming Storming Norming Performing Adjourning
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what is forming?
Acceptance Avoidance of conflict and controversy Working out structure and roles
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what is storming?
Addressing issues Conflict Conflict may be suppressed in the interests of harmony
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what is norming?
Listening, support and flexibility Common identity and purpose
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what is performing?
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what is Adjourning?
Task is complete and the group disengages
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about group socialisation
Prospective member (investigation) Marginal member (socialisation) Member (maintenance) Marginal member (re-socialisation) Ex-member (remembrance)
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what do group initiations do?
if have unpleasant unrelated initation task group was perceived as more attractive after did the initiations
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about group cohesion?
FORCES Attractiveness of the group members Attractiveness of the group Social interaction goals Individual goals requiring interdependence with group members- cohesion - BEHAVIOUR Adherence to standards of group
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what are norms?
Uniformities of behaviour and attitudes that determine, organise and differentiate groups from other groups Formal or informal Regulate and guide behaviour Some are universal and some vary across cultures
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what did Milgram’s subway study do?
Able-bodied students asked people to give up their train seat 68% of passengers did so But… the students reported feeling very uncomfortable
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Why do norms work so well?
They are often enforced People often internalise them They become fixed during socialisation They are consensual They are frequently activated They act as action heuristics to make life easier
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What are roles?
shared expectations of how people in a group are supposed to behave How people holding particular positions should behave Division of labour Expectations Provide information about the group Groups with set roles tend to be more satisfied and perfo
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are roles always good?
They can sometimes make people lose sight of right and wrong Stanford Prison Experiment. Also when they seem illegitimate or arbitrary
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what is Status?
Some social roles are more valued than others Status differentials emerge within groups They reflect social comparisons within the group. People often legitimise status differences People can support systems that are unfair to them personally
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what are Deviants?
Marginal group members Deviate too far from prototypical group members, Generally disliked.threaten positive group image. “Black sheep” studies (Marques et al.)Participants presented with good or bad speeches by Ingroup/outgroup members.
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Bad speeches were rated as bad as/worse as an in-group member
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why can deviants be good?
point out wrong things in group, Intergroup sensitivity effect Tendency to accept criticism more from within the group than from outsiders therefor e they are constructive
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what did Schoemann & Branscombe (2011) show?
Asked young adults how they felt about an older target dressing young Said to be trying to “pass” as young or not trying to pass… According to this study, it is not a good idea to try to “pass” as young if you are not
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what is schism?
when groups break off and smaller groups (subgroups) form which can result in conflict in larger group.
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what is Cross-cutting categories ?
subgroups that represent categories with members outside the larger group
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what is Interdependence
People can often achieve more in groups than when alone
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what is Terror-management
People look for structure in their lives to confront the inevitability of their death
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what is Need for social identity?
Positive consequences for the self (Tajfel & Turner, 1979) Motivation to protect the group because it is part of the self-image
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what is Optimal distinctiveness?
People like to distinguish themselves from others (Brewer, 1991) But, they need to affiliate with others Being in a group allows both
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what is Social facilitation?
When groups facilitate the behaviour of individual members Mere presence is often enough But facilitation occurs on tasks that people find easier
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what is Deindividuation?
Tendency for people in groups to abandon normal constraints on their behaviour “Cloak of anonymity” Diffusion of personal responsibility Lack of accountability
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what is conformity?
“a change in behavior or belief…as a result of real or imagined group pressure” . the convergence of one’s thoughts, feelings and behaviours with an external standard
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what are the types of conformtity?
Compliance: people do as they are asked and required by formal regulations changing behaviour but not beliefs. Obedience: people doing as they are told by an authority figure. Acceptance: changing behaviour and beliefs
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what did Sherif (1935, 1937) do?
Do people use others as frames of reference? Method Participants seated in the dark and asked to observe a pinpoint of light autokinetic effect the light suddenly disappears p's (on own) are asked to estimate how much it moves later, p's do it
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again but given estimates of two other participants in the study. After three group phases, participants rely on the group norm when giving their responses individually
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what did Asch show?
participants seated 6th in a row of 7 people presented with a diagram of a standard line (left) and 3 other comparison lines (right) choose which comparison line matches the standard line
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6 confederates(+ control condition) Trial 1:everyone before the p agrees on the same line-the correct one.The p agrees Trial 2:everyone again agrees on correct line Trial 3:all of the confederates choose wrong line.control 99% right,experiemtnsl 63%
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what did milligram 1965 show?
“study of the effects of punishment on learning”. participant is to teach another person a series of paired words, and then test their memory punish errors by giving electrical shocks the ‘learner’ is a confederate, trained on how to respond.
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obedience decreased as shock level increased however, 63% of ‘teachers’ went up to and beyond 450v (XXX) in another condition where the ‘learner’ could not be seen or heard, but instead pounded on the wall at 300v, 315v (then went silent), 65% went
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obedience drops when the experimenter becomes more distant (21%) however, when no instructions given at all, 2.5% still persisted to the end.Proximity of ‘learner’ if the ‘teacher’ can’t see/hear the ‘learner’ at all, almost 100% obedience obedience
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two disobedient peers reduced complete obedience to 10% two obedient peers raised complete obedience to 93%
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stanford prision experiement
Prisoner rebellion sparked authoritarian guard behaviour Lead to harassment, degradation... Stopped after only 6 days
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what did Milgram and Zimbardo argue?
‘power of the situation’ normative pressure some situations are ‘evil’ moral judgement is suspended ‘The Lucifer Effect’
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how does group size influence conformity
conformity increases with group size up to5 people
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when are people influenced?
higher status people public commitment, to get important info , to avoid rejection, normative influence (going along with the crowd), informational influence (leads people to acceptance/conversion)
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who is influenced most by conformity?
low self-esteem, high need for social support, a need for self-control, low IQ, high anxiety,is greater in cultures where there are heavy sanctions for non-conformity also, individualistic cultures tend to be less likely to conform than collectivist
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what is reactance?
attempting to protect freedom people also assert their own uniqueness
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what is Minority social influence?
called ‘innovation’ less likely that minorities lead to normative influence because there is no normative pressure from the majority also, minorities are sometimes disliked does influence occur on a more private level?
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what are two types of consistency?
diachronic consistency intraindividual consistency stability over time synchronic consistency inter individual consistency, within the minority...
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what is minority influence?
minority evokes a validation process – participant tries to understand why the minority consistently holds to its position participant thinks more closely about issue participant may become privately influenced however, majority pressures may prevent
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this being shown publicly so, we often get private acceptance but not public compliance
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what is majority influence?
the majority (in conformity paradigm) activates a social comparison process participant compared his/her response to that of others conform to normative response of group any private acceptance will be short-lived
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what is aggression?
The “hurt” can be: Physical (e.g., a bruise) Social (e.g., a damaged reputation) Emotional (e.g., hurt feelings) Cultural (e.g., defacing carvings, mosques, cemeteries)
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what is Lorenz (1976) “Aggressive energy”?
biologically adaptive energy that needs release. Combined ideas from Freud and Darwin Similar conclusion to Hobbes – aggression inevitable
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does aggression have a biological basis?
Raine (1993): Studied twins of convicts Half of identical (monozygotic) twins also had criminal records 1/5 of fraternal (dizygotic) twins had criminal records, MAOA – the “warrior gene” on the X chromosome, low levels of serotonin, testosterone
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how did animal evidence support this?
after 26 generations bred warrior ice and pacifist mice
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what is Balyaev’s Russian Silver Fox Experiment
Class III foxes – wild, will show fear, bite Class II foxes – will be petted and handled but no friendliness Class I foxes – show friendliness Class IE “elite” foxes – friendly, seek out human contact. became more tamed
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what are neuroanatomical bases?
Consistent with hard-wired, “instinct” view, parts of the brain appear responsible for anger, aggressive tendencies: e.g., the amygdala
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biochemical influences of aggression?
alcohol: in the bloodstreams of offenders in 50% of rapes, violent crimes in the bloodstreams of victims and/or offenders in 65% of murders reduces self-awareness, ability to consider consequences Interacts with testosterone among mice and men.
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socio-cultural factors: bombs, firearms... frustration-aggression hypothesis: frustration is the blocking of a goal, increases when motivation to achieve goal is strong we expected to achieve goal the blocking is complete. frustration leads to anger
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what is the Social learning theory?
Aggression is often rewarding for the perpetrator… this can reinforce the aggressive behaviour But merely watching others being rewarded can influence behaviour (vicarious conditioning) Aggression is most likely when we are aroused, it seems safe &
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People who play combative sports are also more aggressive of the field .black uniforms make them play more aggressive. Catharsis hypothesis: “the main function of sport today lies in the cathartic discharge of aggressive urge”-subsitute of war.
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how does media and computer games affect it?
The average child views something like 8,000 murders by their late teens, Experiments and correlational studies show that violent TV and computer games contribute to aggression Recent meta-analyses show that this effect is getting stronger
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what does Huesmann (2007) show?
The link between consumption of media violence and aggressive behaviour is stronger than many other interesting and important relationships
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intergroup crimes e.g. Rape, domestic violence
committed much more often by men on women,motivated partly by ideologies supporting power and dominance over women
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what did Hokanson et al show?
when allowed to retaliate against provocateur, participants’ blood pressure returned more quickly to normal but only when the target is the actual tormentor, when retaliation is justifiable and the target is not intimidating
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about anger management?
Largely successful , Influenced by Berkowitz: assumes that aggressors have cognitive scripts linking anger to aggression Some problems – anger not always root cause of aggression; power and intimidation key in much domestic violence
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a study reduced bullying in Norwegian schools by 50% within 20 months. Program implemented principles from psychological research: punishment should be highly likely and speedy mild punishment more effective than severe punishment Increasing empathy
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what are steortypes?
Simplified but widely shared beliefs about the characteristics of groups and their members
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what is prejudice?
Negative affective reaction to a group
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what is Discrimination?
Others treat a person worse because of their group membership
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Illusory correlation bias
People are more accurate at accessing common events, People process unfamiliar information more elaborately so little knowledge on a group can be dangerous.
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what is Category accentuation?
Mere act of categorisation can distort perceptions of groups Differences between categories are maximised and differences within categories are minimised
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what is Outgroup homogeneity effect?
Tendency to see people within a same group as being more “similar” than they really are Because we like people who share characteristics with ourselves, the net result of the outgroup homogeneity effect can be ingroup bias
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what is Dogmatism?
Tendency to tolerate mutually inconsistent beliefs by isolating them in memory. Related to prejudice
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what is peoples motivations?
Preference for structure in most situationsRelated to stereotyping High PNS participants assigned more stereotypically female traits to a woman. Need for cognitive closure Desire to seek an answer over ambiguityAssociated with prejudice/sterotypin
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what is Marxist theory?
Classes have different conflicting interests. It stems from ruling class exploitation of the working class.Unequal class system is preserved by false consciousness– ideologies such as the protestant work ethic,keep people in their p
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Class consciousness emerges when people become aware Various ideologies have been linked to prejudice
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what is Authoritarianism?
Hostility towards Jewish people often co-exists with hostility towards other minorities People exhibiting prejudice seem to share “authoritarian” tendencies
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what is right-wing authoritarian?
Conventionalism, authoritarian aggression, authoritarian submission Show a range of prejudices
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what is Social dominance orientation?
People high in SDO favour status hierarchies Link between SDO and prejudice Racism, sexism and other non-egalitarian attitudes
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what did robbers cave study show?
Phase 1 – group attachment “Eagles” and “Rattlers” Phase 2 – intergroup competition Phase 3 – intergroup reconciliation Contact and superordinate goals reduced conflict
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what is Minimal group paradigm?
Does simply putting people into social categories elicit ethnocentrism? British school boys evaluated unfamiliar paintings. Told that they had a preference for either Klee or Kandinsky.Assignment random.Each boy was asked to assign points to 2 others
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Only known by code and group membership Boys assigned more to ingroup They also favoured the ingroup in relative terms, even if it meant losing money People strive to maintain the superiority of their own group
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what is Hostile sexism?
Women pose a threat to men’s position
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what is Benevolent sexism?
Women are wonderful, and necessary for men’s happiness. means women consigned subordinate role (caring..) Benevolent sexists are more likely to blame ********* victims/restrict womens freedom in pregnancy
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what is the Objectification theory?
Objectification changes the way women are treated by others, but also how they themselves think, feel and act,Linked to the severity of striving for thinness
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what is Dehumanisation?
When people who look different, have different customs etc. seem less than human, Dehumanisation of racial groups tends to legitimate even the worst actions against them
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what is Credentialing?
People show more prejudice after having the opportunity to demonstrate that they are not prejudiced
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what is Modern racism?
Old-fashioned racism has been driven away Replaced by more subtle, qualified racism May lead to aversive racism – avoiding ethnic minorities
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what is ageism?
Older people face many forms of prejudice.25% of people who endorsed ageist stereotypes had a cardiovascular event within 30 years (compared to 13%). The primed stereotype can influence behaviour.
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what is Correspondence bias?
Tendency to think that a person who acts in a certain way must possess the associated trait Stereotypes shape how we perceive the world
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what is The implicit association test (IAT)?
Participants sit behind a computer and press different keys to match concepts In this case “good” and “bad”, “me” and “them” Where an attitude exists, reaction time is much faster when the concepts share a response key than when they do not
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what is Stereotype threat?
When people are tested and belong to a group that is not stereotypically expected to do well, they become anxious and confirm the stereotype Girls and maths
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what is Altruism?
An action performed to benefit another person, without benefitting the self An example of helping behaviour Both examples of prosocial behaviours Valued behaviours in a society.Lower income earners give more to charity
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what is Bystander intervention?
Kitty Genovese case… Apparently 38 residents in nearby apartments witnessed her attack and did nothing.The apparent actions of the bystanders overshadowed the brutality of the murder
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what did Darley & Latané show?
Participants seated in rooms alone, communicating with others through intercom One was a confederate who pretended to have a seizure, asked for help, and began to choke Participants believed that just they, 1 other participant, or 4 others were prese
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Latané and Darley argued that as the number of bystanders increases, people are… Less likely to notice the problem Less likely to interpret it as a problem Less likely to assume responsibility
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why done people help?
Impaired by the diffusion of responsibility “It’s none of my business” “Someone else will deal with this” … and pluralistic ignorance People wrongly assume based on others’ actions that they endorse a norm
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what did Latané and Darley show?
Pumped smoke into a room whilst people were completing a questionnaire Alone, with 2 others, or with 2 passive confederates… reported smoke most alone, then with 2 others then least 2 confederates
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when do people help more?
When they have been drinking, when are friends, if believe others around will also intervene particularly if they are in-group
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what did Levine et al find?
Man U supporters completed questionnaires and were asked to walk to another part of the building to do the study They saw a person slip and fall. The person was wearing either a Man U jersey or Liverpool (or control)… helped most if wearing the same
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what did Regan et al show about power of the situation?
Female shoppers were approached by a man who asked them to take his photo Camera didn’t work Half told that it was their fault Participant later saw a person struggling with a broken bag. more likely to help if it was their fault
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what did Batson propose?
empathy-altruism hypothesis Some actions are driven by empathy and a genuine desire to help
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why are internal rewards important
Helping kin promotes successful reproduction. People (and animals) do help closer others.Altruism can be repaid:The chance of mutual survival is enhanced Others argue that the development of empathy is necessary for survival.
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how do you encourage co-operation?
Encourage pro-social orientation (Some people are “pro-self” and others are “pro-social”), Encourage strong social identification (the more people identify with a group the more likely they'll cooperate especially if pro-self)
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Communication (Mistrust can be resolved by this and can Establish how people should behave), Strategies during the game (Punishing defection and rewarding co-operation as the game unfolds)
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allow to punish for wrong doing, 84% punished at least once,When there was no opportunity to punish- co-operation decreased
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what is entitlement?
respect, autonomy, inheritance
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what is Distributive justice?
Refers to the outcomes people receive
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what is Procedural justice?
Refers to the procedures used to decide the outcomes
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what functions does justice serve?
Improved functioning for the individual Happiness, confidence Benefits for the collective Working hard, respecting the law
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what is Equity?
outcomes should be proportional to merit and contribution
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what is Equality?
resources should be distributed equally
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what is need?
the focus should be on what people need to survive and thrive
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what is exchange Exchange theory?
people pursue their own interests. Maximising personal benefits and minimising costs Comparison level for alternatives
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what is Equity theory?
– people compare and evaluate the net benefits they receive compared to others
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what is just world theory?
People have a deep-seated need to perceive the world as a just place. Children socialised to follow rules Switch from the pleasure principle to the reality principle A “personal contract” with the world Confidence to pursue goals Promotes mental he
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what is the The group-value model?
People do not care about justice only because of the outcomes they expect Their social identity is important.The fairness of the outcomes and the processes tell them about their status Increased identification with the group. work harder for group
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what is System justification theory?
People’s dependence on social systems for wealth and security motivates them to justify those social systems.A defect in the system arouses dissonance People internalise stereotypes They feel that inequality is legitimate and necessary
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Communication and social construction of justice
Communication and social construction of justice
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Other cards in this set
who invented social psychology and when?
British scholars such as David Hume and Adam Smith (1700s) wrote about emotions and how people are influenced by their interactions with other people, german scholars wrote about issues of the self, society... began to emerge late 1800s early 1900s
what influence social psych?
what is personality?
when investigating human nature, what is the universal?