Social Inluence

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Give a general strength of the Authoritarian Personality
The theory can account for obedience and prejudice which often link together.
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Give a general weakness of the Authoritarian Personality.
lternative explanations for the authoritarian personality are much more realistic, such as social identity theory.
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What is prejudice?
To prejudge someone - judge someone before you know them.
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Briefly describe the Social Identity Theory.
The simple act of being grouped will inevitably lead to prejudic against another group.
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Social and Support and Locus of Control are two main explanations for what?
Resistance to Social Influence.
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What is the Locus of Control?
The sense that directs events in our lives.
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What do people with a high internal locus of control believe?
That they can affect the outcomes of a situation.
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What do people with a high external locus of control believe?
That things turn out a certain way, regardless of their actions.
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Having a high locus of control makes us more...?
Resistant to social influence.
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Why does social support make us more resistant to conformity?
Because people resisting act as models to show others that resistance is possible.
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Name a supporting study of Social Support (resisting conformity)
Allen and Levine.
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Describe Allen and Levine's study.
They used a visual task similar to Asch's, and found that conformity was reduced when there was one confederate, even when the confederate admitted to wearing glasses.
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Give a general criticism of Allen and Levine's study.
It lacks ecological validity as the task is unnatural.
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Name a supporting study of Social Support (resisting obedience)
Milgram's variations.
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Describe Milgram's variations in regards to Social Support.
He found that the real participant left the study early when paired with two confederates.
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Name an opposing study of Social Support (resisting conformity)
Asch.
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Describe Asch's study in relation to Social Support.
Asch demonstratedthat when a non conforming confederate started to conform again, so does the real participant, which shows the effect of dissent is not long lasting.
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Name a supporting study of Locus of Control (resisting conformity).
Spector.
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Describe Spector's study.
He gave the LoC scale to 157 Uni students and found that students with high external LoC did conform more, but only in situations that produced NSI.
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Give a criticism of Spector's study.
Generalisability - only Uni students were used.
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Name a supporting study for Locus of Control (resisting obedience)
Holland.
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Describe Holland's study.
He replicated Milgram's study and measured whether participants were internals or externals. He found that 37% of internals did not continue to the highest shock level, whereas only 23% of externals didn't.
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Name an opposing study for Locus of Control (resisting obedience)
Twenge.
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Describe Twenge's study.
He analysed data from American obedience studies over 40 years and found that people have become more resitant but more external.
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Name a supporting study of Minority Influence
Moscovici et al.
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Describe Moscovici et al's study.
He investigated minority influence using a colour perception task. 32% agreed with the minority at least once.
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Name an opposing study of Minority Influence.
Moscovici et al.
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Describe how Moscovici's study both supports and opposes Minority Influence.
Moscovici's study also opposes it because only a small percentage of people consistantly agreed with the minority.
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Give a general strength of Minority Influence.
Minority influence has been seen in everday life e.g. the suffragette movement.
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Give a general weakness of Minority Influence.
Many minority influence studies lack ecological validity and don't tell us much about minority influence in real life situations.
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Minority influence is most likely to lead to what type of conformity?
Internalisation.
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What is the gradual prcoess whereby the minority opinions become those of the majority called?
The snowball effect.
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What are the main processes involved in minority influence according to Moscovici?
Consistency, Commitment, Flexibility, The process of change.
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Describe consistency.
Minority influence is thought to be persuasive if the minoirty are consistent intheir views, as people will start to rethink their own views because they think the minoirty must have a point if they keep saying it.
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Describe commitment.
If the minority had to resist social pressure about their view, it proves they are committed to their view. Others may pay more attention to them as they must really believe what they are saying. This is called the argumentation principle.
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Describe flexibility.
Memebers of the minority must adapt their view and accept reasonable counter arguments. The more flexible they are, the more reasonable they appear and so more persuasive.
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Describe the process of change.
Over time, increasing numbers of people change their opions and switch from mjajoirty to minority view point. The more this happens, the quicker the rate of change.
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How can normative social influence lead to social change?
It draws attention to what the majority is doing.
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What is social change?
Social change is the process by which society changes beliefs, attitudes and behaviour to create new social norms.
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Name a supporting study of Social Change.
Nolan et al.
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Name an opposing study of Social Change.
Nemeth.
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Card 2

Front

Give a general weakness of the Authoritarian Personality.

Back

lternative explanations for the authoritarian personality are much more realistic, such as social identity theory.

Card 3

Front

What is prejudice?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Briefly describe the Social Identity Theory.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Social and Support and Locus of Control are two main explanations for what?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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