Social Influence Key Words

Conformity
A change in a person's behavior or opinions as a result of real or imagined pressure from a person or group of people
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Internalisation
A deep type of conformity where we take on the majority view because we accept it as correct.
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Identification
A moderate type of conformity where we act in the same way within the group because we value it and want to be part of it. But we don’t necessarily agree with everything the majority believes.
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Compliance
A superficial and temporary type of conformity where we outwardly go along with the majority view but privately disagree with it. The change in our behaviour only lasts as long as the group is monitoring us.
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Informational Social Influence
An explanation of conformity that says we agree with the opinion of the majority because we believe it is correct. We accept it because we want to be correct as well. May lead to internalisation
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Normative Social Influence
An explanation of conformity that says we agree with the opinion of the majority because we want to be accepted, gain social approval and be liked. This may lead to compliance.
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Group Size
Asch increased the size of the group by adding more confederates, thus increasing the size of the majority. Conformity increased with group size, but only up to a point, levelling of when the majority was greater than three.
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Unanimity
The extent to which all the members of a group agree. In Asch’s studies, the majority was unanimous when all the confederates selected the same comparison line. This produced the greatest degree of conformity in the naïve participants.
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Task Difficulty
Asch’s line-judging task is more difficult when it becomes harder to work out the correct answer. Conformity increases because naive participants assume the majority is more likely to be right.
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Social Roles
The 'parts' people play as members of various social groups. These are accompanies by expectations we and others have of what is appropriate behavior in each role.
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Obedience
A form of social influence in which an individual follows a direct order. The person issuing the order is usually a figure of authority, who has the power to punish when obedient behavior is not forthcoming.
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Location
The place where an order is issued. The relevant factor that influences obedience is the level of prestige associated with the location.
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Proximity
The physical closeness or distance of an authority figure to the person they are giving an order to. Also, refers to the physical closeness of the teacher and learner in Milgram’s study.
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Situational Variables
In his research, Milgram identified several factors that he believed influenced the level of obedience shown by participants. They are all related to the external circumstances rather than to the personalities of the people involved.
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Uniform
People in positions of authority often have a specific outfit that is symbolic of their authority. This indicates to the rest of us who is entitled to expect our obedience.
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Agentic State
A mental state where we feel no personal responsibility for our behaviour because we believe ourselves to be acting for an authority figure (as their agent). This frees us from the demands of our consciences to allow us to obey even a destructive aut
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Legitimacy of Authority
An explanation for obedience which suggests that we are more likely to obey people who we perceive to have authority over us. This authority is justified by the individual’s position of power within a social hierarchy.
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Authoritarian Personality
A type of personality that Adorno argued was especially susceptible to obeying people in authority. Such individuals are also thought to be submissive to those of higher status and dismissive of inferiors.are also thought to be submissive to those of
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Dispositional Explanation
Any explanation of behaviour that highlights the importance of the individual’s personality. Such explanations are often contrasted with situational explanations.
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Locus of Control
Refers to the sense we each have about what directs events in our lives. Internals believe they are mostly responsible for what happens to them. Externals believe it is mainly a matter of luck or other outside forces.
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Resistance to Social Influuence
Refers to the ability of people to withstand the social pressure to conform to the majority or obey authority. This ability to withstand social pressure is influenced by both situational and dispositional factors.
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Social Support
The presence of people who resist pressures to conform or obey can help others to do the same. These people act as models to show others that resistance to social influence is possible.
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Commitment
Minority influence is more powerful if the minority demonstrates dedication to their position, for example, by making personal sacrifices. This is effective because it shows the minority is not acting out of self-interest.
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Consistancy
Minority influence is most effective if the minority keeps the same beliefs, both over time and between all the individuals that form the minority. It’s effective because it draws attention to the minority view.
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Flexibility
Relentless consistency could be counter-effective if it is seen by the majority as unbedding and unreasonable. Therefore, minority is more effective if the minority show flexibility by accepting the possibility of compromise.
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Minority Influence
A form of social influence in which a minority of people persuade others to adopt their beliefs, attitudes or behaviours. Leads to internalisation or conversion, in which private attitudes are changed as well as public behaviors.
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Social Change
Thisw occurs when whole societies, rather than just individuals, adopt new attitudes, beliefs and ways of doing things. Examples include accepting that the Earth orbits the Sun, woman’s suffrage, gay rights and environmental issues.
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Social Influence
The process by which individuals and groups change each other’s attitudes and behaviours. Includes conformity, obedience and minority influence.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A deep type of conformity where we take on the majority view because we accept it as correct.

Back

Internalisation

Card 3

Front

A moderate type of conformity where we act in the same way within the group because we value it and want to be part of it. But we don’t necessarily agree with everything the majority believes.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A superficial and temporary type of conformity where we outwardly go along with the majority view but privately disagree with it. The change in our behaviour only lasts as long as the group is monitoring us.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

An explanation of conformity that says we agree with the opinion of the majority because we believe it is correct. We accept it because we want to be correct as well. May lead to internalisation

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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