Social Influence Key Studies

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Schultz et al.
When hotel guests were exposed to the message "75% of guests reuse their towel each day", their own towel use went down by 25%.
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What explanation of conformity does Schultz's study support?
Normative social influence.
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Wittenbrink and Henley
When participants were exposed to negative views about African Americans (which they were led to believe was the view of the majority), they later reported more negative beliefs about a black individual.
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What explanation of conformity does Wittenbrink and Henley's study support?
Informational social influence.
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Name a study that investigated conformity.
Asch
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What year was Asch's study conducted?
1956
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Who were the participants in Asch's study?
123 US male undergraduates. One real participant in each trial and the rest confederates.
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Describe the procedure of Asch's study.
Asked to call out which of the 3 lines displayed was the same length as the standard line. On 12/18 trials, the confederates all gave the same incorrect answer. The real participant always answered 2nd to last.
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What were the findings from Asch's study?
On the 12 critical trials, the average conformity rate was 33%.
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State 3 variables affecting conformity.
1) Group size. 2) The Unanimity of the Majority. 3) The Difficulty of the Task.
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Name a study that investigated conformity to social roles.
Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment
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What year was Zimbardo's study conducted?
1973
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Who were the participants in Zimbardo's study?
24 male student volunteers
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Describe the procedure of the Stanford Prison Experiment.
Mock prison set up, participants randomly assigned to either guard or prisoner. Prisoners were referred to as an ID number and guards had sunglasses and a uniform.
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What were the findings of the Stanford Prison Experiment?
Guards grew increasingly tyrannical and abusive, prisoners grew increasingly passive. Both the guards and prisoners conformed to their social roles.
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Name a study that investigated obedience.
Milgram's Voice Feedback Study.
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What year was Milgram's study conducted?
1963
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How many participants were in each variation of Milgram's study?
40
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Describe the procedure of Milgram's Voice Feedback Study.
Participant and 2 confederates (experimenter and learner). Participants were told it was a study on how punishment affects learning. The participant tested the learner on word pairs. Every wrong answer received an electric shock.
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What were the findings of the Voice Feedback Study?
65% of participants continued to the final shock level (450 Volts). All participants went to 300 Volts.
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State 3 situational factors in obedience.
1) Proximity. 2) Location. 3) The Power of Uniform. Na
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Name a study that investigated the Authoritarian Personality.
Elms and Milgram
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What year was Elms and Milgram's study conducted?
1966
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Who were the participants in Elms and Milgram's study?
People who has previously taken part in one of Milgram's experiments. 20 "obedient" participants (those who continued to max. shock level) & 20 "disobedient" participants (those who at some point refused to continue).
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Describe the procedure of Elms and Milgram's study.
Completed MMPI to measure personality variables and California F scale to measure levels of authoritarianism. Asked open questions about relationship with parents during childhood, and their attitude towards the experimenter previously.
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What were the findings from Elms and Milgram's study?
Higher levels of authoritarianism found in obedient's compared to disobedient's. Obedient's reported being less close with their fathers & found experimenter more desirable. Positive correlation between obedience & authoritarianism.
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State the 3 behavioural styles which are important for minorities to adopt in order for a conversion process to occur in majorities.
1) Consistency (stability in expressed position over time). 2) Commitment (degree of dedication to an issue). 3) Flexibility (willingness to compromise).
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Name a study that investigated the effect of 'consistency' in a minority group.
Moscovici
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What year was Moscovici's study conducted?
1969
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Who were the participants in Moscovici's study?
Each group comprised 4 naive participants and a minority of 2 confederates.
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Describe the procedure of Moscovici's study.
Shown blue slides. "Consistent minority" called all the blue slides green. "Inconsistent minority" called 2/3s of the blue slides green and 1/3 blue. Control group had no confederates & slides were called blue throughout.
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What were the findings from Moscovici's study?
"Consistent minority" influenced the naive participants to say green on over 8% of the trials. Inconsistent minority. exerted very little influence. Consistent minority far more influential than an inconsistent one.
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State the 5 stages of social change through minority influence.
1) Drawing attention to an issue. 2) Cognitive conflict. 3) Consistency of position. 4) The augmentation principle. 5) The snowball effect.
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Card 2

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What explanation of conformity does Schultz's study support?

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Normative social influence.

Card 3

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Wittenbrink and Henley

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Card 4

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What explanation of conformity does Wittenbrink and Henley's study support?

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Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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Name a study that investigated conformity.

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