social influence ; conformity ; asch's rsrch

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PROCEDURE
DIGDFG
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what did he show pps?
two large white cards at a time
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what was on the cards?
1. 'standard line' 2. three 'comparison lines'
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what did the three lines look like?
one same length as standarsd, other two always substantially different
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what were pps asked?
which of three lines matched
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how many / who were the pps in this study?
123 american male undergraduates (shocker)
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each nsaive pp was tested individually with group of?
6-8 confederates
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on first few trials what did all confedereates do?
give right answe
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but then?
started making errors
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what were all confederates instructed to do?
give same wrong answers
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all together howmany trials did each pp take part in?
18
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how many of these were 'critical trials' (wrong answer)?
12
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FINDINGS
DFIGNDG
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naive pp gave wrong answer what % of time?
36.8%
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what % pps didn't conform on any trials?
25%
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what has been used to describe this result?
asch effect
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which is the extent to which?
pps conform even when situation ambiguous
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when pps interviewed afterwards why did most say they conformed?
to avoid rejection
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which suggess which type of social influence?
normative
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ASCH'S VARIATIONS
DIGND
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1. group size
digndfg
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asch found with three confederates conformity rose to what %?
31.8%
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but what happened with addition further confederates?
little difference
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what does this mean about small majorities?
not sufficient for influence to be exerted
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but?
no need for majority more than three
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2. unanimity
digndg
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what did asch want to know if would affect conformity?
another non-conforming presence
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so he introduced a confederate that did what?
disagreed with others
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presence of dissenting confederate meant conformity reduced by how much from unanimous majority?
a quarter
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dissenter presence enabled pp to do what?
behave more independently
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which suggests what about influence of majority?
depends to some extent on unanimity
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3. task difficulty
dfignd
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how did he make it more difficult?
made stimulus and comparison lines a more similar length
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what did he find about conformity in these contds?
increased
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what type of social influence does this suggest plays a greater role with more difficult tasks?
informational social influence
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because the situation is more ambiguous so?
we are to look to others for guidance
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EVALUATION
DFIGDF
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:( temporal validity
diofhnf
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who did perrin and spencer repear asch's study on and when?
uk engineering students / 1980
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when was asch's research conducted?
1951-5
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how many trials did perrin and spencer do?
396
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how many students conformed?
1
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why may this be with regards to the engineering students?
more confident about measuring lines than original sample
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but why with regards to 1950s america?
more conformist a a whole so made sense to conf 2 est social norms
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but since society has changed a lot since then what is there possbiblity for?
less conformism
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this is a limitation as suggests what about the asch effect?
not consistent across situations and possibly time
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meaning it isn't what to human behaviour?
not fundamental feature
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:( artificial situation and task
dfoigndgf
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pps knew they were in a study and may have just done what?
gone along with demands of situation
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expressing?
demand characteristics
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why was there no reason not to conform in this experiment?
basically trivial task
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what did fiske say about aschs groups?
'asch's groups were not very groupy'
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what did he mean by that?
they don't resemble everyday life groups that are like all friends
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limitation because it means the findings don't generalise to what?
everyday life
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especially true when what is altered about the consequences?
more important
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:( limited application of findings
dfogd
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what gender was tested by asch?
only men thanks man
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which means the research is extremely?
androcentric
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and generalising this to women creates?
beta bias
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what does other research suggest women might be with regards to conformity?
more conformist
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why?
more concerned about social relationships than men
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where were the men in asch;s study all from?
usa
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what type of culture is this?
individualist culture
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what have similar studies in collectivist cultures shown?
higher conformity rates
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why does this make sense?
more oriented to group needs
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what does this show about level conformity?
higher sometimes than what asch found
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asch's findings may also only apply to wh?
american men
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bc what differences didn't he take into account?
culture + gender
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EVALUATION EXTRA
IDFBGD
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:( only apply to certain situations
dignd
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why might asch's situation lead to higher thn usual conformity?
answering aloud to a group of strangers they wanted to impress
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what williams and sogon find about level of conformity among friends?
higher
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:( ethical issues
digdgi
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what is the ethical issue implicated here?
deception
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why?
pps thought the other ppl were also pps
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but what should the ethical costs here be weighed up against?
benefits of study
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Card 2

Front

what did he show pps?

Back

two large white cards at a time

Card 3

Front

what was on the cards?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what did the three lines look like?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what were pps asked?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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