Social influence

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  • Created by: Yemi
  • Created on: 28-03-16 18:23
Types of Conformity
Internalisation, Identification and Complinace
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Internalisation
Publicly changing behaviour to fit in with the group while also agreeing with them privately. Deepest level of conformity because individual adopts the beliefs of the group
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Identification
Occurs when someone conforms to the demands of a given social role in society. No change to personal opinion
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Compliance
Agreeing with groups viewpoint or behaviour in public but disagreeing privately. Change in view is temporary
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Explanations of Conformity
Information Social Influence and Normative Social Influence
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Informational Social Influence
Individuals look to others who they believe have superior knowledge because they are unsure of the situation or lack knowledge. Tends to lead to internalisation
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Normative Social Influence
Individuals don't want to be left out so conform to fit in with the group. Tends to lead to compliance
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Asch: Aim
Investigate how people conform when given an unambiguous task
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Asch: Procedure
123 American male students who thought they were taking part in a study of visual perception. Pps placed in groups with between 7 to 9 others, who were confederates
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Asch: Results
On 12 critical trials, 37% of the responses made by true pps were incorrect. 25% never conformed on any of the trials.Control: 1% inaccurate response
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Asch: Evaluation1
This study lacks ecological validity as it was based on people's perception of lines, this doesn't reflect the complexity of real life conformity.
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Asch: Evaluation2
Pps said they conformed to fit in with the group, this claim supports normative influence which states that people conform to fit in when privately disagreeing with the majority.
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Variables Affecting Conformity
Groups Size, Unanimity, Task Difficulty
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Group Size
Individuals are more likely to conform when in a larger group. 4 is considered the optimal group size because conformity doesn't seem to increase
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Unanimty
Individuals are more likely to to conform when all members agree and give the same answer. The presence of one confederate that goes against the majority choice can reduce conformity
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Task Difficulty
Individuals look to others for confirmation when uncertain so when task is made more difficult conformity rises
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Zimbardo: Aim
To see whether people will conform to new social roles
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Zimbardo: Procedure1
The pps were all male students from Stanford uni. They volunteered to take part in the study and were randomly allocated to two groups ­prisoners and prison guards. Prisoners were to spend two weeks locked in cells in a wing of the university
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Zimbardo: Procedure2
Prison guards were there to look after the prisoners and to keep them under control. Prisoners were arrested unexpectedly and taken to the university. Stripped, deloused and given a prison uniform and prisoner number
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Zimbardo: Procedure3
Spend 23 hours a day locked in their cells for two weeks. Prison guards were given uniforms, including sticks and mirrored sunglasses. They worked shifts and went home at the end of their shift
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Zimbardo: Findings1
Experiment was called off after 6 days. Guards had become so brutal to the prisoners that two prisoners had some form of nervous breakdown, one developed a nervous rash all over his body and one went on hunger strike
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Zimbardo: Findings2
Prisoners became apathetic towards guards. They did not stand up to guards and did as they were told
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Zimbardo: Conclusion1
Pps extreme reactions could be because they conformed to social roles, when given a role they changed to suit it. De-individuation may explain pps behaviour
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Zimbardo: Conclusion2
De-individuation may explain pps behaviour, a state when you become so immersed in the norms of the group that you lose your sense of identity and personal responsibility
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Zimbardo: Evakuation1
Lacks population validity, sample was made up of US male students so studies cannot be generalised to to female prisoners or those from other countries. It has changed the way US prisons run
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Zimbardo: Evaluation2
Harmful treatment of pps led to recognition of the ethical guidlines,now studies must be approved by ethics committee before being carried out
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Explanations for obedience
Agentic State and Legitimacy of Authority
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Agentic State
People will obey an authority when they believe that the authority will take responsibility for the consequences
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Legitimacy of Authority
People will obey when they believe that the person is of a legitimate authority
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Situational Variables Affecting Obedience
Proximity, Location and Uniform
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Publicly changing behaviour to fit in with the group while also agreeing with them privately. Deepest level of conformity because individual adopts the beliefs of the group

Back

Internalisation

Card 3

Front

Occurs when someone conforms to the demands of a given social role in society. No change to personal opinion

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Agreeing with groups viewpoint or behaviour in public but disagreeing privately. Change in view is temporary

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Information Social Influence and Normative Social Influence

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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