Social Influence

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What is obedience
following order from authority figure because you are told too.
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What was the holfing study?
Doctor calls nurses and tells them to administer drug over the phone. The study was to see if people follow orders they may possibly believe wrong simple because it is from an 'authoritive figure'.
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What was the aim of the milgram study?
To find out why people are obedient to authority figures.
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Milgram procedure?
Learner and teacher. Administer shocks if question is wrong. Increase shocks each time up to a deadly amount.
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Milgram findings?
100% shocks up to 300. 65% too 450. Female obediences only 2% lower than males. Obedience is due to situation not personality.
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Milgram Ethics.
Ethics - psychological harm, deception, informed consent.
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Bickman Study
Uniform and Obedience. Member of public told to stand guard and shock suspect by someone in uniform.
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Bickman findings
Most obey - uniform affects obedity.
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Bickman A03
feild experiment - high external validity.
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Milgram critisms.
Volunteer sample - may have been biased, hard to generalise. Low internal validity - PP didnt believe shocks were real. Milgram states in debrief 70% did.
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What is agentic state?
PP believes they are acting as an agent and takes no personal responsibilty towards actions.
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Legitimacy of Authority?
Obedience Explanation. Justify obedience with persons position of power - social hireachy.
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Who talks about the agentic state?
Stanley Milgram
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Characteristics of the agentic state?
High anxiety when realise wrong. Powerless to obey.
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What is the autononomous state?
Independent/free to behave according to own principles.
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What is agentic shift?
Agentic to autononomous (visaversa)
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Binding factors of agentic shift?
Aspects of the situation allows person to ignore damaging effect of behaviour. Shifts responisibilty to victim.
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Destructive Authority?
Charasmatic, powerful leaders ie. Hitler use legitmare power to gain destructive powers. Makes people behave in ways against conscience ie. Milgram study.
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Blass and Schmitt - Agentic A03.
Showed milgram study to students to identify who was responsible. Students blame experimenter due to legimiate authority - he has more power.
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Limited Explanation - Agentic A03.
Does not explain why some did not obey, if humans are social animals they should. Also does not explain Hofflings - nurses did not show high anxiety.
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Legitmacy of authority - Cultral differences - A03.
Kilham and Mann - Milgram repeat in australia. only 16% went to top. Mantel - Gernany. 85%. Some cultures more likely to accept legitimate. Increases validity.
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Obedience Alilbi - limitation of agentic state. A03
Nazi behaviour not explained.
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Manel - Agentic Limitation - A03.
German police - chose to go home instead of shoot - not acting as agents.
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What is a dispositional explanation?
Behaviour explanation due to individuals personality.
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What is Authotarian Personality and who states it?
Adorno - Susceptible to obeying people in authority. Submissive of high status, dismissive of inferior.
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Adorno procedure?
2000 MC white americans. Unconcious attitudes to other racial groups, mesaure them on F SCALE.
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What is the F-SCALE?
Facism scale. measures authotarian personality.
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Adorno findings/characteristics?
High on scale = identify with strong people. status conscious. fixed stereotypes. obedient to authority. society is going to the dogs - strong leaders needed.
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Authotarian origin?
Harsh parenting creates hostility and displaced fear on the weak - scapegoating.
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Research support for authotarian personality?
Milgram and Elms - interviews found correlation between obedience and FSCALE. However - no cause and effect, possible 3rd factor.
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Authotarian limitation
Correlation not causation - Adorno could not claim that harsh parenting caused it.
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What is resistence to social infulence?
ability to resist conformity/obeying social pressure. Infulenced by situational and disposititional factors.
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Social support?
Resist pressueres to conform or obey and can help others by acting as a model to do the same
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What is locus of control?
Sense about what directs events in our life, Internal - responsible. External - luck or outside forces.
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Card 2

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What was the holfing study?

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Doctor calls nurses and tells them to administer drug over the phone. The study was to see if people follow orders they may possibly believe wrong simple because it is from an 'authoritive figure'.

Card 3

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What was the aim of the milgram study?

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Milgram procedure?

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Milgram findings?

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