Social Influence

Compliance
We conform to become part of a group. We may not privately change our opinion but we publicly change in order to fit in with a group. The lowest type of conformity.
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Identification
Where we conform publicly but not privately in order to adopt a certain view but only in a certain situation/ presence of a group. As soon as this is taken away we go back to our private views. e.g.: Strict in job as a teacher but relaxed at home.
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Internalisation
This is considered to be the most permanent form of conformity and change our opinion both publicly and privately . No pressure is needed to conform as genuinely believe it, belief of the majority is accepted, becomes part of their own belief system.
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Deutsch and Gerald
Developed two process theory of why we conform, two central human needs; the need to be right and the need to be liked/fit in
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Normative Social Influence (NSI)
The desire to be liked, want to fit in with society and not appear foolish in uncertain situations, links to compliance conformity, NSI more transient so less permanent compared to ISI.
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Informational Social Influence (ISI)
The desire to be right, normally takes place when we are unsure of a situation, look to others who we deem as 'experts' in situation and copy them, linked to internalisation conformity,ISI more permanent
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Lucas et al. Support for ISI
Ask students to give answers to easy and hard maths problems, more conformity to harder questions, and higher conformity if student rated personal maths skills as low, went along with others 'experts', support for ISI, need to be right
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Zimbardo conformity experiment criticism, Banuazizi and Mohavedi
They argued that pop's were 'play acting' and presenting stereotypical behaviours of prisoners and guards that they had seen on films etc.
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Zimbardo conformity experiment criticism, Fromm
Only 1/3 of prison guards actually acted brutally towards prisoners, 2/3 either applied rules fairly or supported prisoners, criticism as shows Zimbardo exaggerated the power of the situation and that all ptp's conformed to social roles
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What is Obedience?
Obedience is complying with or deferring to a request/ direct attempt or order from a legitimate authority figure.
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Milgram's findings from his experiment
65% of pop's went to 450V, ALL pop's went to 300V
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What were the four prods used by the experimenter to make the Pop's continue in the experiment?
1) Please continue 2) The experiment requires you to continue 3) It is absolutely essential that you continue 4) You have no choice but to continue
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Hofling et al study, Obedience
Looked at the levels of obedience of nurses in a hospital ward to unjustified demands by doctors, doctors told them to give patients double the amount of drugs they were meant to (all drugs fake in experiment) out of 22 nurses 21 obeyed orders.
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Criticism of Milligram's study, Orne and Holland
Demand characteristics occurred, social desirability as they suggested that pop's knew that the shocks issued were fake, however Milgram said 70% of pop's believed they were real
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Situational variables, Proximity
OG experiment: learner and teacher in diff. rooms 65% obedience. 1)learner and teacher in same room = 40% obedience 2) experimenter not present, gave instructions by telephone = obedience 20.5%
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Situational variables, Location
OG experiment: university setting of Yale = obedience 65% 1) run down building, experimenter seen to hold less authority = obedience 47.5%
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Situational variables,Uniform
OG experiment: experimenter wore grey lab coat = symbol of authority = obedience 65% 1) experimenter replaced by ordinary member of the public = obedience 20%, lowest out of all variations
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Bickmann, The power of Uniform study
In the study 3 diff. outfits used; jacket and tie, milkman's outfit and security guard, members of the public asked to pick up litter or give money for a parking meter = twice as likely to do it if security guard asked them too= uniform = authority
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Milligram's study repeated in France,Spain, Germany and Australia
France:80% gave maximum shock of 450V, Spain: 90% gave maximum shock of 450V, Germany: 80% gave maximum shock of 450V, Australia: only 16% gave maximum shock of 450V
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Aldorno et al.
Authoritarian Personality, used the F Scale
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Authoritarian Personality Criticism, Hyman and Sheatley
Only a correlation between AP and Obedience, lacks causal explanation, might also be a third factor causing the obedience.
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Agentic State support, Blass and Schmidt
Showed student's the film of Milgram's study and asked who was responsible. They said it was the fault of the experimenter rather than the ptp teacher, as experimenter at the top of the social hierarchy, support for Agentic State explanation
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Situational factors, resistance to social influence
The presence of an 'ally' or a dissenter, social support breaks the unanimous position of the majority, relieving pressure of the minority, increase likelihood of resisting change
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Situational factors, resistance to social influence, conformity support
Asch's study, reduced conformity from 37% to 10% when one dissenting confederate was present
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Situational factors, resistance to social influence, conformity support
Allen and Levine, exemplified point further and said that independence increased, even if the dissenting confederate had visual impairments, not motivated by what they say, just relieves pressure for the minority.
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Situational factors, resistance to social influence, obedience support
Milgram's study, reduced obedience from 65% to 10% when a dissenting participant was also in the room with the teacher too.
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Dispositional factors, resistance to social influence
Rotter's 'locus of control' ILOC and ELOC, ILOC = control their own future, ELOC= future decided by luck/fate, therefore ILOC's more likely to resist social change
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Dispositional factors, resistance to social influence, support
Holland repeated Milligram's experiment and measure ptps LOC, 37% of ILOC's didn't continue to 450V, whereas only 23% of ELOC's didn't.
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Dispositional factors, resistance to social influence, support
Oliner & Oliner, interviewed non-Jewish survivors of WW2, compared ppl who protected Jews to those who followed the rules and didn't, 406 rescuers were more likely to be ILOC compared to 126ptps who followed orders,ILOC less likely to follow orders
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Dispositional factors, resistance to social influence, support
Spector, used Rotter's LOC scale to see if LOC was associated with conformity, 157 students, ILOC = less likely to conform but only in NSI setting (desire to be liked), showing NSI is more important than ISI in conformity when considering LOC.
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Minority influence, Consistency
Consistency = synchronically or diachronically consistent in their views, causes ppl. to rethink their own views.
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Minority influence, Commitment
Commitment= create activities which causes some risk to their group (augmentation principle), makes majority pay more attention to what the minority are saying.
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Minority influence, Flexibility
Flexibility = minority group willing to balance the consistency of their message, adapt their views and consider reasonable counterarguments
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Snowball effect
When people revert their view to that of the minority, causing the minority to eventually become the majoirty
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Moscovici study, minority influence
All female ptp, shown 36 blue-green slides, 3 conditions 1) confederates said slides were mostly green 2) confederates were inconsistent in their answer 3) control group with no confederates
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Moscovici study findings, minority influence
, cond1= 8.42% of ptp answered green, 32% of ptp agreed green atlas once, cond2= 1.25% answered green = consistency is key for minority to change majority viewpoint
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The role of social influence process of social change,
1) draw attention 2) consistency, commitment and attention 3) augmentation principle applied 4) consistency and commitment = deeper processing of the majority 4)Snowball effect occurs 5)social cryptomnesia(can't remember where their ideas came from)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Where we conform publicly but not privately in order to adopt a certain view but only in a certain situation/ presence of a group. As soon as this is taken away we go back to our private views. e.g.: Strict in job as a teacher but relaxed at home.

Back

Identification

Card 3

Front

This is considered to be the most permanent form of conformity and change our opinion both publicly and privately . No pressure is needed to conform as genuinely believe it, belief of the majority is accepted, becomes part of their own belief system.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Developed two process theory of why we conform, two central human needs; the need to be right and the need to be liked/fit in

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The desire to be liked, want to fit in with society and not appear foolish in uncertain situations, links to compliance conformity, NSI more transient so less permanent compared to ISI.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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