Social Influence

Compliance
This refers to instances where a person may agree in public with a group of people but the person actually privately disagrees with the group’s viewpoint or behavior. The individual changes their views, but it is a temporary change.
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Internalisation
Publicly changing behavior to fit in with the group while also agreeing with them privately. An internal (private) and external (public) change of behavior.
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Identification
Identification occurs when someone conforms to the demands of a given social role in society. For example, a policeman, teacher or politician.
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Normative influence
The desire to be liked – when we conform to fit in with the group because we don’t want to appear foolish or be left out.
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Informational influence
The desire to be right – when we conform because we are unsure of the situation or lack knowledge, so we look to others who we believe may have more information than us.
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Group size affecting conformity (Asch)
The bigger the majority group (number of confederates), the more people conformed, but only up to a certain point.Brown and Byrne (1997) suggest that people might suspect collusion if the majority rises beyond three or four.
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Group unanimity affecting conformity (Asch)
A person is more likely to conform when all members of the groups are in agreement and give the same answer. When one other person in the group gave a different answer from the others, and the group answer was not unanimous, conformity dropped.
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Difficulty of task affecting conformity (Asch)
When the (comparison) lines (e.g., A, B, C) were made more similar in length it was harder to judge the correct answer and conformity increased. When we are uncertain, it seems we look to others for confirmation.
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Agentic state
Agency theory says that people will obey an authority when they believe that the authority will take responsibility for the consequences of their actions.
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Legitimacy of authority figure (Milgram)
People tend to obey others if they recognise their authority as morally right and / or legally based (i.e. legitimate). This response to legitimate authority is learned in a variety of situations, for example in the family, school and workplace.
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Uniform affecting obedience (Milgram)
Milgram’s experimenter (Mr. Williams) wore a laboratory coat (a symbol of scientific expertise) which gave him a high status. But when the experimenter dressed in everyday clothes obedience was very low.
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Location affecting obedience (Milgram)
Milgram's obedience experiment was conducted at Yale, a prestigious university in America. The high status of the university gave the study credibility and respect in the eyes of the participants, thus making them more likely to obey.
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Proximity affecting obedience (Milgram)
People are more likely be obey an authority figure who is in close proximity (i.e. nearby). In Milgram's study the experimenter was in the same room as the participant.
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Authoritarian personality
One of the various characteristics of the authoritarian personality was that the individual is hostile to those who are of inferior status, but obedient of people with high status.
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Authoritarian personality evaluation
It is possible that the F scale suffers from response bias or social desirability, where participants provide answers that are socially acceptable.
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Social support
The presence of one other who did not conform gave the true participant social support and made them feel more confident in their own decision and more confident in rejecting the majority position.
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Social support evaluation
In one of the variations, one of the confederates was instructed to give the correct answer throughout. In this variation the rate of conformity dropped to 5%.
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Locus of control
High internal locus of control means that they have a great deal of personal control over their body whereas a high external locus of control believes that behaviour is down to other factors such as luck.
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Locus of control evaluation
Non jewish ww2 survivors Oliner and Oliner found that the 406 ‘rescuers’, who had resisted orders, were more likely to have a high internal locus of control, in comparison to the 126 people who had simply followed orders.
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Minority influence
Minority influence occurs when a small group (minority) influences the opinion of a much larger group (majority). This can happen when the minority behaves in the following ways.
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Consistency
Moscovici stated that being consistent and unchanging in a view is more likely to influence the majority than if a minority is inconsistent and chops and changes their mind.
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Commitment
When the majority is confronted with someone with self-confidence and dedication to take a popular stand and refuses to back own, they may assume that he or she has a point.
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Flexibility
However, if they appear flexible and compromising, they are likely to be seen as less extreme, as more moderate, cooperative and reasonable. As a result, they will have a better chance of changing majority views.
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Social change
Social change occurs when a whole society adopts a new belief or behavior which then becomes widely accepted as the ‘norm’.
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Social change evaluation
the suffragettes were consistent in their view and persistently used educational and political arguments to draw attention to female rights.
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Snowball effect
This means that more and more people adopt the minority opinion, until gradually the minority becomes the majority. At this point, the people who have not changed their opinion are the minority.
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Social cryptoamnesia
The majority opinion then becomes law, and people have to obey this law. Once this happens, the minority opinion has become the dominant position in society, and people do often not even remember where the opinion originated from.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Publicly changing behavior to fit in with the group while also agreeing with them privately. An internal (private) and external (public) change of behavior.

Back

Internalisation

Card 3

Front

Identification occurs when someone conforms to the demands of a given social role in society. For example, a policeman, teacher or politician.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The desire to be liked – when we conform to fit in with the group because we don’t want to appear foolish or be left out.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The desire to be right – when we conform because we are unsure of the situation or lack knowledge, so we look to others who we believe may have more information than us.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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