Social Influence

What is the agentic state?
Obedient Individual sees themselves as not being responsible for their own action- they give responsibility to a figure of authority.
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What is the agentic shift?
Shifting responsibility for ones actions onto someone else.Involves moving from an autonomous state into an agentic state- sees self as an agent for carrying out persons wishes.
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What did participants say in interviews?
Obedient participants said they were just doing what they've been told.
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What did the interviewer come to the conclusion of?
An individual feels responsible to the authority figure directing him or her but feels no responsibility for the actions that the authority figure dictates.
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Why do people adopt an agentic state?
Maintain a positive self image. A person my assess the consequences of this action for his or her self image and refrain. Once person is in an agentic state this concern isnt relevant as its not their responsibility.
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Do people feel concern under the agentic state
No it is guilt free however in humane it is
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What binds the person to the agentic state?
Subject feels if they break off of the experiment they will be in breach of commitment made to experiment. Subject feels if break off he will appear rude.Emotions&Violence to learner binds subject to obedience.
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What is a legitimate authority?
Someone who is percieved to be in a position of social control in a situation. Milgram believed there is a shared expectation among people that many situations have a social controlling figure.
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What does legitimate authority stem from?
Percieved position in a social situation.
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What did Milgram believe?
That there is a shared expectation among people that many situations have a social controlling figure- percieved to be in a position of social control. For it to be legitmate it would occur in an institutional structure like military.
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What is the consequence of legitmate of authority?
Some people are granted power to punish others. Most of us are willing to give up power and independance.
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Where do we learn LOA
From childhood and parents
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Give one critism
Legitimate authority can be used to justify harming people
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another critism
Obedience may explain obedience better than agentic shift
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another critism
The idea that people change states fails to explain the gradual and irreversible transititons
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What was the sample in Milgrams study?
40 participants
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What were participants told?
study of how punishment affects learning
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What were the confederates?
Teacher and Learner. Real participants were the teacher and fake participant the learner.
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What did the teacher do?
Test the learner on his ability to remember the word pairs Everytime the learner got one wrong itd be shocked.
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What did the shocks start and end at
15 volts and then a maximum 450 volts.
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What is conformity?
change in behaviour as a result of real or imagined pressure from a person or group of people
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What is internalisation?
When a person genuinely accepts group norms. Private and public hange of opinion. Change is permenant as attitudes are internalised-way person thinks. Persists even in absence of group members.
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What is Identification?
Conform to opinions of a group because there is something in that group we value. Identify with group so we want to be part of it. Publicly change opinions to achieve this goal even if we dont privatley agree with everything they stand for.
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What is compliance?
'Going along with others'in public but not privatly changing opinions. Superficial change. Particular behaviour or opinion stops as soons as group pressure stops
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What is informational social influence?
We agree with the opinion of the majority because we believe it to be correct. We accept it because we want to be correct aswell. It is a cognitive process because it is what you think.
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What is an example of informational social influence?
You may not know the answer in class but pmost of the class agrees on one answer so you accept that one
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When is informational social influence likely to happen?
In situations that are new to a person, or situations of ambiguity- so it isnt clear what is right or crisis situations where decisions must be made quickly. Also occurs when one person is regarded as an expert.
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What is normative social influence?
We agree with the opinion of majority because we wanted to be accepted, gain social approval and be liked. This may lead to compliance
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Why do people accept normative social influence?
People dont like to appear foolish and want to gain social approval rather than rejection so it is emotional not cognitive
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When is NSI likely to occur
in situations with strangers where you feel concerned about rejection. Or people you know because you are concerned with approval of friends. Or stress situations where support is needed.
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REASEARCH SUPPORT FOR ISI
LUCAS AT EL- conformitu to incorrect answers when difficult rather than when tey were easy. students whose maths was poor. people conform in situations where they dont know answer. we look to other people and assume they know better than us.
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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENECES IN NSI
Nsi doesnt effect everyones behaviour in the same way. some people care less about being liked(naffiliators). students high in need of affiliation likely to conform. Desire to be liked underlies conformity more than others. Differences in responses.
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POWER OF NORMATIVE SOCIAL INFLUENCE SUPPORTED BY REASEARCH ON TEEN SMOKING
relationship in normative beliefs and likelihood of smoking. Likenbach and Perkins teens who were told peers didnt smoke also didnt smoke. Therefore people shape behavour to fit in with peer group.
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What is the aim of aschs study?
To test conformity when in group situation.
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What is the procedure of Aschs study
2 large cards-1 standard line & other 3 comparison lines. 1 was same length as standard line other were different. Tested individually with 6-8 confeds. First trials confeds gave correct answer but started making errors.
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What was the sample in Aschs study?
123 American male undergraduates
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How many trials did each participant take place in?
18 trials and on 12th critical trial confederates started giving the wrong answer.
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What were findings of aschs research?
75% conformed at least once
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What is the asch effect?
extent at which participants conform even when situation is unambiguous
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What did participants say in their interview?
They conformed to avoid rejection (normative social influence) an emotional response.
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How did group size impact Aschs research?
With 3 confederates conformity of wrong answer rose to 31.8%. Small majority is not needed to be exerted but there is no need for a majority more than three.
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How did unanimity impact aschs research?
Asch wanted to see if presence of a non conforming person would effect a pts conformity. A confederate who also disagreed. Presence of a dissenting confederate meant conformity was reduced by 25% from the level it was at when majority was unanimous.
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What did unanimity mean for the pts?
Enabled pts to behave independantly. Influence on majority depends on group being unanimous.
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What did task difficulty mean for Aschs results?
Line judging task made harder. Stimulus line and comparison line closer in length. Conformity increased. ISI plays greater role when task is harder. Situation is more ambiguous- more likely to look for guidance.
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What was Zimbardos aim?
Do prison guards behave brutally because of sadistic personalities or is it the situation they're in.
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What was zimbardos sample?
Voluntering Students, emotionally stable
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Where was the stanford prison set up?
mock prison in basement of pyscologu department at stanford university
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what was zimbardos procedure
Students randomly assigned role of guard or officer.
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How did zimbardo heighten realism
prisnors were arrested at homes by local police and delivered to prison. They were blinfolded stripped, deloused and issued a uniform and number.
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What was social role of prisoners?
Daily heavily regulated. 16 rules had to follow-enforced by guards who worked shifts 3 at a time. Prisnors names werent used only their numbers.
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What was social role of guards?
Own uniform complete with wooden bats handcuffs and mirror shades. Complete power over prisoner- deciding toilet breaks.
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How long did the study last and why was it stopped?
Stopped after 6 days instead of 14 as it was a threat to pyscological and physical health.
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What did prisnors do after 2 days?
Rebelled against harsh treatment after 2 days, ripped uniform off, swore and shouted at guards.
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What tactics did the guards put in place?
divide and rule tactic. Playing the prisnors off against eachother.
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What else did guards do to prisoners?
Harrased them, reminded them they were being monitored,freq headcounts in the night, stand in line and call out number
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How did guards show difference in social roles?
created plenty of opportunities to enforce the rules and punish and even the smaller demeanour.
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What was the effect of the rebellion for the prisoners?
Prisoners became subdued,depressed and anxious.
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How many were released from the study?
One released from day 1 for pyscological disturbance, Two more on day 4.
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What happened to the prisoner who went on hunger strike?
Force feed. Punished by putting in a small hole in a dark closet. And was shunned by other prisoners.
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Who identified with their role?
Guards- became more brutal and aggressive and enjoyed the power they had over prisoners.
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What is the conclusion of zimbardos research?
Power of a situation influences behaviour. Guards/prisoners conformed to roles. Taken on by participants and volunteers who came to perform functions found they behaved as though it was a prison
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Demand characteristics may have effected the experiment weakening its internal validity
Banuazi and Movahedi- students with the spe correctly guessed purpose and predict behaviour of pts. internal validity may have threatned.
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Conforming to social roles has real world application
same conformity in Abu Ghraib-prisoners were tortured and abused.
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Not all guards behaved sadistically
some guards were aware what they were doing was wrong
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Why did milgram conduct his study?
To understand why the german population had followed the orders of hitler. He wanted to know if germans were different or more obedient.
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What was his sample and how was it collected?
40 male participants through newspaper and flyers aged between 20-50 jobs ranged from unskilled to proffesional. Offered $4.50.
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Where was it conducted?
Laboratory study.
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What was the confederate acting as?
MR WALLACE ended up as leaner and the the true participant was the teacher. The experimentor was another confederate. Dressed in lab coat
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Were participants given the right to withdraw?
YES
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What was the teacher required to do?
Give severe eletric shock each time each time the learner made a mistake on a learning task. (task involved learning word pairs)
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What is situational factors?
several factors which milgram believed influenced the level of obedience shown by participants. All related to external circumstances not personalities of person involved.
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What is proximity?
the closeness of authority figure to the person they are giving the order to. Physical closeness of teacher to victim(learner) in Milgrams study.
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What happened when proximity variation where they were in the same room?
Obedience dropped from 65% to 40%.
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What happened in the touch proximity?
The teacher (pts) had to force the learners (confed) hand onto an electroshock plate when he refused to answer a question. Obedience dropped to 30%.
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What happened when the experimentor left the room and gave instructions via telephone?
It was a remote instruction condition and time proximity was reduced. Reduced obedience to 20.5%. Participants also pretended to give shocks or gave weak ones.
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What effect do location have on obedience?
When conducted in a run down building experimentor had less authority. Obedience fell to 47.5%
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What effect did uniform have on obedience?
When the experimentor wore a grey lab coat but was called away and switched with experimentor wearing everyday clothes obedience dropped to 20%
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What did Adorno want to test?
They wanted to locate causes of obedience in the personality of an individual.
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What was Adornos sample?
2000 middle class white americans and their unconscious attitude towards racial groups.
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How did Adorno investigate this?
He developed a Fscale which is used to measure authortian personality.
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Examples of items on the fscale
'Obedience and respect for authority are the most important virtues children should learn' and 'there is hardly anything lower than not showing love&gratitude for his parents'
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What happened to those who had authoritian leanings?
Scored high on Fscale.Identified with strong people and were mean to weaker.Conscious of own and other status' and excessive power to those of a high status.
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What style did authoritian people have?
Cognitive style. Fixed and distinct stereotypes. Positive correlation between authoritaranism and prejudice.
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Who did authoritive people show most respect for?
Authority figues , those who had a higher status. Also showed extreme submissiveness. Contempt for people they percieve as having inferior social status.
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What are authoritive peoples attitude towards sex race and gender
Highly conventional. Believe we need a strong and powerful leader to make sure values like love for our country, religion,and families.
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Are they flexible or inflexible?
INFLEXIBLE. There are no grey areas.Everything is either right or wrong and they are uncomfortable with uncertainty.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the agentic shift?

Back

Shifting responsibility for ones actions onto someone else.Involves moving from an autonomous state into an agentic state- sees self as an agent for carrying out persons wishes.

Card 3

Front

What did participants say in interviews?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did the interviewer come to the conclusion of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why do people adopt an agentic state?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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