Social developments : China

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  • Created by: tgrev
  • Created on: 24-04-18 18:07
What were the '3 obediences' chinese women were traditionally subjected to
1. ot their father when young 2. ot their husband when they're married 3. to their son in old age
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3 things that also made women inferior
1. forced into arranged marriages 2. they could not own property 3. had no political voice
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what did mao claim women did
'women hold up half the sky' and the cp called women an 'indispensable force in defeating the enemy and building a new china'
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what was teh difference between rich and poor marriages in traditional china
the rich men married women for fun, many had multipel wives, the poor married in hopes of gainign an extra labourer
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what was foot binding
physical crippling of womens feet making them more appealing. incredibly painful. part of the traditional han-chinese culture
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how did ararnged marriages for women economically impact them
gave away the woman at a time hwen she would prove economically beneficial, practice of givign a dowry = jewels/valuable practical items forfeited to groom
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what indicated the severity of gender inequality
many families resortign to infanticide to not suffer the burden of raising a girl
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how was teh brides inferiority further confirmed
subjected to teh hardest chores due to the mother in laws jealousy over her son loving another women
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how were women discriminated in terms of educational opportunities
girls not provided with opportunities. her family would not benefit to her being educated. in 1930's only 1% of women over the age of 7 were literate, 2.2% women received schooling
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what was teh 1950 marriage law
women had legal equality (own property and seek divorce), practice of dowries was forbidden, women had to be 18 to marry, free will was also required
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what indicates this law was effective
by 1976 0.6% of marriages were arranged, by 1965 2.4% of brides were aged 16-17
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problems with the marriage law
men were annoyed they could'nt economically benefit from marriage, led to 1.4 million divorce petitions in 1953. violence broke out as men tried to reclaim divorced wives
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what was the attitudes of party cadres towards marriage law
ambivalent or hostile, some feared only rich men would be able to have wives, many refused to uphold the law in their local areas
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what was the attitude of the muslim communities towards equality
greatly resented the challenge to their long-held customs, areas such as Xianjing, lives for women were unchanged
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how did collectivisation and the communes improve womens lives
mao claimed they would receive liberation through labour, women coudl earn equal wages to men, some referred to as heroins, similar to teh stakhavonite movement, communal food prep and child care = less stress
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how did collectivisation and communes not benefit wome
worked the fields and did most domestic chores = hard work, unfam,iliaritty in some labour tasks
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impact of the kindergartens
mothers felt distressed as could be seperated from their kids for logn periods of time, child care poor, chicken pox frequent, in 1 in beijing 90% were sick
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impact of the communal canteens
poor wuality of food and the length of time it tookt o get increased the hardship of women, less likely to receive food as did less physical laboru then men, women neglected when food was low
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what was the work points systme
men could gain more work points due to them completing more physical labour, provided a disincentive to women, reinforced traditional gender roles
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how did abuse and discrimination still take place
cadres and officials abused their position, in one communes pregnant mothers were forced to ***** down naked and break ice in the winter, **** was rife due to starvation heightenign womens vulnerability. in one commune, 2 party cadres ****d 34
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how did despair spread
during the famine women were forced into prostitution, trading sex for food. suicide was widespread
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what was the womens association
a group encouraging the political activism of women, publishjing arm which proclaimed the accomplishments of the party and exhorting women to even greater efforts for the comm cause. official mebership of 76 mill
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how was the womens association beneficial
set up ploughing lessons, organised classed to improve literacy
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how did the cultural revolution improve the role women had in politics
wore same maoist uniform as men, leading in violent denuciations by teh red guard
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how did the cp succeed in improving education and employment for women
100% of girls completed primary education when enlisting after 1958, gave women roles in teh pla accompanying men, some able to study in the soviet union
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how was a military career beenficial for women of richer fmailies
gave a chance to prove commitment to the regime after being shunned in employment due to their class
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how did collectivisation prevent equality
while women could in theory hold land due to their legal equality, collectivisation prevented private ownership, thus women could not have the same amount of power as men
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what was education like before reform
low literacy, males attended for 4 years on avergae, females 3
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what subjects were learned pre-reform
not science of maths, domination of humanities subjects, 59% had degree studies in law politics or liberal arts
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how did teh ccp improve literacy
new form of writen language introduced, number of primary school students increased by 38 million between 1947 + 58, rural schools were financially supported by local village-> improved access. yet 78% of pop remained illiterate
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how did the ccp impact higher educaiton
uni enrollment quadrupled from 117,00 to 441,000. Modelled closely on the U.S.S.R model, by 1959 38,000 chinese had been taught in russian uni's.+ focus on specialised technical jobs, specialised institutes for steel making
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what was the introduction of pinyin
new written language based on latin alphabet. letters replaced symbols and meant words could be pronounced phonetically, greatly improving communication
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what were the failures of reform from 1949-58
admissions to middle school meant that the old bourgeois and new were favoured. unis mainly urban students, new communist elite developed, winter school ineffective
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how did the great leap forward impact education and employment
many didnt attend school to produce back yard steel, development of a two track educational system, rural schools more vocationaly, cities more academic, young peasants excluded from college prep, same aspirations and study of capitalists, + elitisim
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why did educcation collapse after 1966 and why
failure to create educational equality led mao to believe that capitalist roaders had taken over, mao claimed that too much readin would "petrify your mind", new system based on marxism-leninism and class struggle
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how was education and employment impacted by the cultural revolution
aimed to reform the old educational philosophy and methodology. schools and uni closed so th red guard could attend the mass rallies. they went mad for mao and started attakcing their teachers, teachers tortured at struggle meeting
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the cultural revolutions impact on education
lasting impact on students attitued to learning, challenged the rote learning, end of cult rev many young sent to live as peasants and appreciate hard labour, mao wanted intellectuals to experience harshness of life and alleviate urban over crowding.
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what was health provision like
rudimentary, christian missionaries brought western medicine to china, yet many still relied on traditional acupuncture and herbalism. healthcare never more then 2.6% of budgert
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how effective was health policy
prioritised prevention over cures, cadres trained to show peasants how to prevent the spread of disease through sanitation and public hygiene, effective and eliminated smallpox cholera typhus. cases of turberculosis and parasitic disease reduced.
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how were drug dealers dealt with
terror campaign agaisnt them prevented teh number of drug dealers
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4 signs of improvements in healthcare
communes established medical clinics, 0ver 800 western style hospitals built, doctors went form 40,000 to 150,000 from 49-65, 25,000 doctors graduated per year
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what were the barefoot doctors
antis campaign of the 50's disrupted the work of doctors, inequalitu in healthcare provision, barefoot doctors would provide assistance to the rural. barefoot doctors ineffective
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impact of the barefoot doctors
adequate to treat teh common problems of the peasants. doctors with rudimentary training were better tehn nothing. in total, over a million new doctors trained by 1973
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what was the role of jiang qing in cultural chaneg
chosen by mao to over seee the purification of 'revisionist, capitalist and feudalist' influences during teh cult rev, used it as an poortunity to launch a political caree. given a place in cult rev group, its art and lit group replaced ministry ocul
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how was the theatre censored
all foreign works banned, contradiction of directors by jiang qing, 'make it revolutionary or ban it' was her slogan
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what was revolutionary opera
jiang qing damned stroylines as bourgeios and feudalist, wanted communist writers to focus on heroic peasants, audiences tired of the only 8 performances allowed
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communist attittudes to religion
denounced. confucianism upheld the old system, attacked as being derived from western, BUddhist lamas seens as opps
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what was confucianism
teachings of the philosopher confucius, attacked during the cult rev, association with confucianism was dangerous e.g liu purged
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what was ancestor worship
representation of old fashion thought, condemned by the communists as superstitious
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how successful was the regime in destroying old traditions
many temples destroyed, yet some cadres were superstitious
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what was teh early religious policy
less militant, careful approach. tried to win over religious leaders
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christianity in comm china
protestant churches forced to be obedient to govt with 3 selfs rule. korean war escalated tensions between catholic church, and vatican representatitves were expelled.
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islam in comm china
in xianjing many welcomed the peaceful liberation by teh pla, xianjing granted autonomy, yet new regime still controlled. muslims targeted in cult rev, mosques turned into slaughterhouses or stables
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buddhism in comm china
easier to attack, some forcibly enlisted in military academics, some denounced and killed. ancient tempples converted to barracks in k war, govt controlled through Patriotic Church Movement, tibet attacked in cult rev
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Card 2

Front

3 things that also made women inferior

Back

1. forced into arranged marriages 2. they could not own property 3. had no political voice

Card 3

Front

what did mao claim women did

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what was teh difference between rich and poor marriages in traditional china

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what was foot binding

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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