Social Development

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  • Created by: Beth
  • Created on: 24-05-16 15:00
Name the five role of caregiver-infant interactions.
Imitation, Interactional Synchrony, Physical Contact, Sensitive Responsiveness and Motherese.
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What is imitation?
Young infants imitate adults' facial expressions - helps to develop and maintain attachment.
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Research support for imitation?
Melzoff and Moore - 2-3wk old infants - 3 facial expressions and 1 hand movement - judges rated responses for likeness to behaviours.
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What is interactional synchrony?
'taking turns' in conversation.
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Research support for interactional synchrony.
Isabella et al - securely attached babies showed more instances of interactional synchrony during first year than other attachment types.
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Research support for physical contact.
Klaus and Kennel - skin-to-skin contact with baby in critical period - better attachment. (UNRELIABLE - types of parenting differ results).
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What is sensitive responsiveness?
It is how well the caregiver knows the child.
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Research support for sensitive responsiveness.
Ainsworth
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What is motherese?
A distinctive language pattern demonstarted byt adults conversing with young children. Slow, high-pitched and repetitive, intonation varies, and short simple sentences.
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Name the animal research.
Harlow
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Keywords of Harlow's research.
Rhesus monkeys, separated from Mother at birth - kept in cage with two 'mothers' - wire and cloth. MORE TIME with cloth than wire. When returned to others, delinquent and inappropriate behaviours - aggressive.
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What did Harlow suggest?
Physical comfort is more important for attachment than food. Lack of attachment leads to delinquency and antisocial behaviour.
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Name the four functions of attachment.
Cupboard-love, Survival, Communication and Internal Working Model.
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What does Cupboard Love suggest?
Babies attach to those who feed them.
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What does Survival Theory suggest?
Attachments aids survival - innate drive to keep proximity to care-giver.
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What does Communication theory suggest?
Infants choose to attach to the person they communicate best with.
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What does Internal Working Model suggest?
It is a template for future relationships from childhood experiences.
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Keywords of the strange situation.
Eight episodes, three minutes each. BEHAVIOUR CATEGORIES: proximity seeking, stranger fear, crying. SECURELY ATTACHED, ANXIOUS AVOIDANT, ANXIOUS RESISTANT.
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Evaluation of Strange Situation.
1. generalisable across cultures. 2. attachment types oversimplified - reductionist. 3. Individual differences and environmental factors not taken into account. 4. Ethnocentric - based on one culture.
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Who replicated the Strange Situation and what did they find?
Van Ijzendoorn - Germany had more anxious-avoidant, Japan more anxious-resistant.
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Name the two other methods of measuring attachment.
Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and Attachment Q-Sort.
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Keywords for the AAI.
1 hr, 15 open questions about attachment experiences, content analysed and coded into categories. Autonomous secure = securely attached.
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Keywords for the attachment Q-Sort.
90 behavioural descriptors, 'child expert' sort cards into 9 piles, 1 (least like child) 9 (most like child). Socre indicates attachment type.
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What is privation?
It is when an attachment has never been made.
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What is deprivation?
It is when an attachment has been formed but has been broken.
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Research support for Privation.
Harlow (delinquent monkeys), Genie (consequences of no attachments), Koluchova twins (supports and doesn't, AGE 18 MONTHS).
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Short term effects of DEPRIVATION.
PDD (Protest, Despair, Detachment). SUPPORT - ROBERTSON x2 (children 7 months - 3 yrs suffer from distress of seperation).
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Long term effects of DEPRIVATION.
Seperation anxiety (clinging, aggression). SUPPORT - Belsky (20hrs a week daycare = negatively affected)
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Keywords of Rutter's research of the effects of institutionalisation.
Romanian oprhans, compared with 52 UK adoptees. FOUND quasi-autistic symptoms 9.2% compared to 0%.
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Four main points of Bowlby's research.
MONOTROPY, CONTINUOUS CARE, CRITICAL PERIOD and MATERNAL DEPRIVATION.
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What is monotropy?
One main attachment figure
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What did Bowlby suggest about continuous care?
Child should receive continuous care to form a proper attachment.
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When is the critical period and what happens if attachment is broken in this time period?
First two years of life - irreversible long-term consequences.
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What is maternal deprivation?
A break in attachment will lead to delinquency, affectionless psychopathy and intellectual retardation.
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Evaluation of Bowlby's research.
1. Confused deprivation and privation - based on infants without attachment from beginning. 2. Hodges & Tizard - 7yr olds developed attachments.
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Why does Schaffer's work contradict Bowlby?
Suggests that people make MULTIPLE attachments, not just one. (60 Glaswegian infants, first 18 months)
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Erwin suggests children's friendships serves which functions?
1. development of cognitive and interactional skills. 2. opportunity for intimacy. 3. exchange and test knowledge. 1
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Name the five stages of friendship understanding suggested by Selman?
PHYSICAL PARTNER (3-6yrs), ONE-WAY ASSISTANT (5-9yrs), RECIPROCITY (7-12yrs), EXCLUSIVE INTIMACY (10-15yrs) and AUTONOMOUS INTERDEPENDENCE (12+yrs)
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What did Selman notice?
Number of friendships increase until adolescence, where depth of relationship becomes more important than number of friends.
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Research to support Age-related change in friendship.
DAMON (interviews 'tell me about best friend' - put into three categories - Friendship is more complex with age). BIGELOW AND LA GAIPA (essays about best friend, analysed for 21 dimensions, understanding of friend more sophisticated with age).
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Keywords for sex differences in children's friendship.
Boys friendships - extensive, focus on shared activities. Girls friendships - intensive, focus on emotional closeness.
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Research support for sex differences in children's friendships.
BENENSON (rating peers using friendship and play rating scales, and describe peers in interview. Found same sex differences). LEVER (interview attitudes towards friends and their interactions with friends. Girls - 1 friend, jealous of third party)
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Card 2

Front

Young infants imitate adults' facial expressions - helps to develop and maintain attachment.

Back

What is imitation?

Card 3

Front

Melzoff and Moore - 2-3wk old infants - 3 facial expressions and 1 hand movement - judges rated responses for likeness to behaviours.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

'taking turns' in conversation.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Isabella et al - securely attached babies showed more instances of interactional synchrony during first year than other attachment types.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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