Social Construction of Crime

  • Created by: lw121x
  • Created on: 16-06-15 19:59
labelling theories are interested in....... certain acts came to be labelled criminal
how + why
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Not actually criminal
individuals just label it as that
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who argues that a deviant is simply someone that has been labelled
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moral entrepreneurs
moral creusade change belief in whom benefit applied
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moral entrepreneuars cause:
creation of ousiders 'outlaws' deviants, expansion of social control agency to enforce rules
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who argued that juvile deliquency was a result of victorian moral entrepreneurs
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Becker notes...
control agencies themselves may try and gain more power
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who found that decisions to arrest a youth was mainly on physical appearance
Pilivan and Briar
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cicourel looked at typifications
stereotypical theories hwt a deliquent is like
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who argues that law enforcement look at certain 'types'
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class bias, wc areas fitted police more arrests
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Circourel also lookeda at CJS probation officers
juvile deliquency broken homes more likey reoffend= less likely support non custodial sentences
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statisics do not give valid research, we should look at the processes ie. labelling that influence them
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Labelling theorists argue that being labelled
causes a self fullfilling prophecy
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who distinguishes between primary and secondary deviance
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primary deviance
the act itself easy rationalised - don't see self deviant
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Secondary Deviance
deviance labelled result of societal reaction being caught involve stigma, Master staus
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Master status causes
crisis identity, resolved by going in way society sees them
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ex convicts
find hard to emply
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ex convicts might join a deviant subculture
because they feel an outsider
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Jock young looked at.... in Notting Hill
Marijuana users
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who found that initially majuiana was rimary then label caused secondary
Jock Young
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majuna users developed a.......
deviant subculture
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Lemert and young argue
not act itself that acuses serious deviance other peoples reactions
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Downs and Rock found that
cannot predict label = deviant career
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process which attempt to control deviance creates further deviance
Deviance amplification
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Cohen studied
moral panics and folk devils
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press exaggeration= (deviance amp)
moral entrepreurs cracking down
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deviance amplification of the mods and rockers state crack down and marginalisation =
more deviant behaviour
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recent studies have shown that attempts to crack down on young offenders
done the opposite
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who found the increase in USA for young deviants to be seen as evil- relabelled offences ie. truancy
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policy implications....
if we reduce policies = less deviants want to do it
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Who sees labelling as a positive
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Brainwasite believes that by naming and shaming
stops them committing secondary deviance
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labelling theory is deterministic
once labelled will reoffend
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Labelling theorists look at the negative effects on offender realists believe that
should look at victim
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The labelling theory
fails to explain why they commit primary deviance in the first place
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Labelling theory implies that individuals do not know tat they are deviant until labelled
however many individuals know
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Marxists argue that the labelling theorists
fail to explain links between capitalism and labelling proccess
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Lea and Young are
Left Realists
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Lea and Young argue that interactionists
too readily dismiss it as social construction they argue black working class due from marginalisation
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Interactionalists offer a practical policy focus
whereas left realists see a realistic solutions
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Not actually criminal


individuals just label it as that

Card 3


who argues that a deviant is simply someone that has been labelled


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


moral entrepreneurs


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


moral entrepreneuars cause:


Preview of the front of card 5
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