Social class differences in achievement- External factors

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Provide a cultural deprivation statistic.
The Centre for Longitudinal Studies (2007) found that by the age of 3, children from disadvantaged backgrounds are already up to 1 year behind those from more privileged homes and the gap widens with age.
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What did Hubbs-Tait et al find?
They found that where parents use use language that challenges their children to evaluate, their own understanding or abilities improve.
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Explain Bernstein's speech codes (1975).
Restricted code- Used by W/C, limited vocab, speech is predictable, context bound. Elaborated- M/C, grammatically more complex sentences, more abstract, gives them an advantage in schools as this is used in schools.
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State some criticisms of Bernstein's speech codes.
He describes W/C speech as inadequate. Some argue that failure happens just because schools fail to teach them.
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What did Douglas' (1964) study find.
He found that W/C parents placed less value on education. They were less ambitious for their children, gave them less encouragement and took less interest in their education.
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Explain Feinstein's (2008) which supports Douglas' study.
He argues that parents' own education is the most important factor affecting children's achievement.
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Explain Bernstein and Young's (1967) findings on use of income.
They found that M/C mothers are more likely to buy educational toys, books and activities that encourage reasoning skills and stimulate intellectual development.
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What does Sugarman (1970) state are the 4 key features of W/C subculture that act as a barrier to educational achievement?
Fatalism- 'Whatever will be, will be'. Collectivism- Valuing being part of a group, rather than succeeding as an individual. Immediate gratification- Seeking pleasure now, rather than making sacrifices in order to get rewards in the future.
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What is the last key feature of Sugarman's W/C subculture theory?
Present-time orientation- Seeing the present as more important than the future, not having long-term goals.
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What does Keddie (1973) state about cultural deprivation?
She describes it as a 'myth' and sees it as a victim-blaming explanation.
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Provide a material deprivation statistic.
Nearly 90% of 'failing' schools are located in deprived areas.
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How can housing affect a pupil's educational achievement?
Overcrowding- hard to study, lack of space for small children to explore. Poor housing indirect effects- accidents, cold/damp housing= ill health, psychological distress- all equals more absences from school.
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What does Howard (2001) state about diet and health?
She notes that young people from poorer homes have lower intakes of energy, vitamins and minerals. Poor nutrition affects energy levels- weaker immune system= more absences.
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What did Tanner et al's (2003) study of financial support and the costs of education in the Oxford area find?
The cost of items such as transport, uniforms, books, computers, calculators, sports etc. places a heavy burden on poor families. They may have to deal with hand-me-downs as a result, meaning they may be isolated or stigmatised by their peers.
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What did Callender and Jackson (2005) find about W/C fear of debt?
They found that W/C students are more debt averse- they saw debt negatively, as something to be avoided. They saw more costs than benefits in going to university.
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Describe Bourdieu's (1984) view that there are 3 types of capital.
Both cultural and material factors contribute to educational achievement and are not separate but interrelated. He uses the term 'capital' to explain why the M/C are more successful.
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What are Bourdieu's (1984) 3 types of capital?
Cultural- Knowledge, attitudes, values, languages, tastes and abilities of the M/C, gives an advantage. Educational and economic, can be converted into one another.
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Sullivan's (2001) study supports Bordieu's cultural capital. Discuss.
She used questionnaires to conduct a survey of 465 pupils in 4 schools. To assess their Cultural Capital, she asked them about a range of activities, e.g. reading and TV viewing habits. She found that those who read complex fiction and watched TV doc
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Sullivan's (2001) study supports Bordieu's cultural capital. Discuss. (2)
developed a wide range of vocab and cultural knowledge. They were more likely to be successful at GCSE. She also found that these types of pupils were more likely to be M/C. Greater resources and aspirations of M/C explains gap.
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Card 2

Front

What did Hubbs-Tait et al find?

Back

They found that where parents use use language that challenges their children to evaluate, their own understanding or abilities improve.

Card 3

Front

Explain Bernstein's speech codes (1975).

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

State some criticisms of Bernstein's speech codes.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did Douglas' (1964) study find.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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