Social class and educational achievement- Internal factors

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Who did Becker (1971) study and what did it show in terms of labeling within schools?
He carried out an important interactionist study of labelling based on interviews with 60 Chicago high school teachers. He found that they judged pupils according to how closely they fitted the image of 'ideal pupil'.Work, conduct and appearance- key
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Describe Dunne and Gazeley's (2008) study into labelling in secondary schools.
They argue that 'schools persistently produce W/C underachievement' because of labels. From interviews in 9 English state secondary schools, teachers 'normalised' the underachievement of W/C pupils and seemed unconcerned by it.
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What was the major reason for the teacher's beliefs in this labelling study?
The teacher's belief in the role of pupils' home backgrounds. They labelled W/C parents as uninterested in their children's education. This affected how they were treated- W/C entered for easier exams.
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Discuss Rist's (1970) study into labelling in primary schools.
He studied American kindergartens. He found that the teacher used information about the child's home background and appearance to place them in separate groups. Fast learners labelled 'tigers', greater encouragement. Other two groups were
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Discuss Rist's (1970) study into labelling in primary schools. (2)
labelled as 'cardinals' and 'clowns', more likely to be W/C.
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What is a self-fulfilling prophecy?
It is a prediction that comes true simply by virtue of it having being made. Interactionists believe that labelling leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy.
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How does Rosenthal and Jacobson's (1968) study of a California primary school show the self-fulfilling prophecy at work?
They told the school that they had a new test specially designed to identify those pupils who would 'spurt' ahead. It was in fact a standard IQ test. The researchers tested all the pupils but then picked 20% at random and told them they were spurters
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How does Rosenthal and Jacobson's (1968) study of a California primary school show the self-fulfilling prophecy at work? (2)
On returning to the school a year later, they found that almost half of those identified as spurters had made significant progress and the effect was greater on younger children. They state that the beliefs of the teachers had influenced the results.
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What is streaming?
Streaming involves separating children into different ability groups or classes called 'streams'.
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Explain Douglas' study into streaming.
He found that children placed in higher streams at the age of 8 had improved their IQ score by the age of 11.
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What is the 'A-to-C economy'?
The system in which schools focus their time, effort and resources on those pupils they see as having the potential to get 5 grade Cs and so boost the school's league table position.
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Explain Gillborn and Youdell's (2001) study into streaming an the A-to-C economy.
They studied 2 London secondary schools and found that teachers are less likely to see W/C pupils as having ability. They were placed in lower streams and entered for lower tier GCSEs.
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What is the educational triage? (Gillborn and Youdell)
Sorting into streams based on league table results, based on 3 groups. 1. Those who will pass anyway and are left to get on with it. 2. Those with potential. 3. Hopeless cases that are doomed to fail.
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Describe Lacey's (1970) concepts of differentiation and polarisation.
Differentiation- Teachers categorising pupils based on ability or behaviour. Polarisation- Process in which pupils respond to streaming by moving towards one of the two opposite 'poles'.
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What is a pro-school and anti-school subculture?
pro- high streams, remain committed to the values of the school. anti- low streams, pushes them to gain status in another way.
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Discuss Hargreaves' (1976) study into the anti-school subculture.
In a secondary modern school he found that from the point of view of the education system, boys in the lower streams were triple failures: failed 11+ exam, low streams and labelled as 'worthless'. Response to this was to form a group within which
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Discuss Hargreaves' (1976) study into the anti-school subculture. (2)
high status went to those who flouted the schools rules.
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What did Ball (1981) discover when a school abolished banding?
He found that the basis for pupils to polarise into subcultures was largely removed and the unfluence of the anti-school subculture declined.
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Sociologists such as Woods (1979) believe their are other responses to streaming, explain some of these.
Ingratiation- 'Teacher's pet'. Ritualism- Going through the motions to stay out of trouble. Retreatism- Daydreaming and 'mucking about'. Rebellion- Outright rejection of everything the school stands for.
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Explain how Furlong (1984) would evaluate Woods (1979).
He observes that many pupils are not committed permanently to any one response, but may move between different types of response.
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State some criticisms of labelling theory.
Marxists say it ignores the wider structures of power within which labelling takes place. It also assumes that all pupils that have been labelled have no choice but to stick with their label.
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What is Bordieu's (1984) concept of habitus?
Habitus refers to the dispositions or learned, taken-for-granted ways of thinking and acting that are shared by a social class. It includes their tastes and lifestyles. A group's habitus is formed as a response to its position in the class structure.
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What is Bordieu's (1984) concept of symbolic violence?
The school devalues the W/C habitus so that they are deemed tasteless and worthless. He calls this withholding of symbolic capital 'symbolic violence'. It reproduces the class structure and keeps lower classes in their place.
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Discuss Archer's findings related to Bordieu's symbolic violence concept.
He carried out a study and found that the W/C pupils felt that to be educationally successful, they would have to change how they talked and presented themselves.
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How did this lead to the creation of 'Nike identities'?
Many were conscious that society looked down on them so they sought out other ways to create self worth. They did so by constructing meaningful class identities for themselves by investing heavily in'styles'.Especially brand name clothing.M/Cconflict
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Nike styles play a part in W/C pupils' rejection of higher education. How do they view higher education?
Unrealistic- Not for 'people like us'. Undesirable- It would not 'suit' their preferred lifestyle or habitus.
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Evans (2009) conducted a study into class identity and self exclusion. Discuss.
She studied a group of 21 W/C girls from a south London comprehensive studying for their A-levels. He found they were reluctant to apply for elite universities such as Oxbridge and the few that did apply felt that there were hidden barriers.
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Card 2

Front

Describe Dunne and Gazeley's (2008) study into labelling in secondary schools.

Back

They argue that 'schools persistently produce W/C underachievement' because of labels. From interviews in 9 English state secondary schools, teachers 'normalised' the underachievement of W/C pupils and seemed unconcerned by it.

Card 3

Front

What was the major reason for the teacher's beliefs in this labelling study?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Discuss Rist's (1970) study into labelling in primary schools.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Discuss Rist's (1970) study into labelling in primary schools. (2)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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