SNAB A2 Biology - Topic 5

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  • Created by: Katherine
  • Created on: 30-12-14 11:05
Biosphere
Part of the Earth and its atmosphere that is inhabited by living organisms.
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Abiotic
Physical and chemical factors like, the climate and soil type.
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Biotic
Factors determined by organisms such as predation and competition.
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Habitats
A place with a distinct set of conditions where an organism lives.
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Population
A group of individuals of the same species found in an area.
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Community
The various populations sharing a habitat or an ecosystem make up a community.
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Niche
The way species use their environment e.g. what they eat, the shelter they use ect.
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Abiotic Factors
Solar energy input, climate, topography, oxygen availability, edaphic, pollution, catastrophes
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Biotic Factors
Competition, grazing, predation, parasitism, mutualism.
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Biotic factors are usually...
density dependent - the effects are related to the size of the population relative to the area available.
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Anthropogenic Factors
Those arising from human activity. They can be either abiotic or biotic.
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Adapted for survival
Species survive in a habitat because they have adaptions that enable them to cope with both the biotic and abiotic conditions in their niche.
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Succession
A community that changes over time is known as succession.
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Primary Succession
A primary succession starts in newly formed habitats where there has never been a community before. This may occur, for example, on bare rock, on material on the seashore, like sand and shingle, and in open water.
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Climax Community
A community dominated by trees
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Secondary Succession
On bare soil where an existing community has been cleared, secondary succession occurs.
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Deflected Succession
A community that remains stable only because human activity prevents succession from running its course is called a deflected succession.
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Primary Productivity
The rate at which energy is incorporated into organic molecules in an ecosystem is called the primary productivity of the ecosystem
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Producers
Also known as autotrophs, are organisms that can make their own organic compounds from inorganic compounds. Green plants, algae and some bacteria are producers.
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Chemosynthetic Autotrophs
Producers that make organic molecules using energy released from chemical reactions.
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Photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H2O ------> C6H12O6 + 6O2
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Releasing Hydrogen from water
The splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen requires energy. Photosynthesis uses energy from sunlight to split water. This process is known as the photolysis of water, because of the involvement of energy from light in the reaction.
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Storing hydrogen in carbohydrates
The hydrogen reacts with carbon dioxide in order to "store" the hydrogen. Carbon dioxide is reduced to form the carbohydrate fuel glucose, which can be stored or converted to other organic molecules.
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Using the glucose
The fuel has the potential to release large amounts of energy when the hydrogen stored in the carbohydrate reacts with oxygen during respiration. In aerobic, glucose is pulled apart. H2 combines with O2 to make H2O, and energy + CO2 is released.
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The importance of photosynthesis
Organic molecules made during photosynthesis are passed on through food webs to other organisms.
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How Photosynthesis works
Light dependent reactions + Light independent reactions
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Light dependent reactions
Use energy from light and hydrogen from photolysis of water to produce reduced NADP,ATP and the waste product Oxygen. The oxygen is either used directly in respiration or released into the atmosphere
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Light independent reactions
Use the reduced NADP and ATP from the light dependent reactions to reduce carbon dioxide to carbohydrates.
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Reduction
Existing bonds are broken and new bonds are formed, often involving the transfer of electrons. Electrons are also transferred when atoms turn into ions, or ions into atoms. The loss of electrons = oxidation and the gain = reduction.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Physical and chemical factors like, the climate and soil type.

Back

Abiotic

Card 3

Front

Factors determined by organisms such as predation and competition.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A place with a distinct set of conditions where an organism lives.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A group of individuals of the same species found in an area.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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