Smoking & Disease Links (2.2.2)

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What is epidemiology?
Research to try to link certain diseases with certain contributory risk factors.
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Give two ways in which data from epidemiological studies may be used.
To identify countries that may be at greater risk. To identify if one sex is more at risk than the other.
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Give two ways the information from the studies may then further be used.
To target advice and education to the people most at risk. To put preventative measures into place.
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Give two pieces of epidemiological evidence related to smoking and early death.
50% of regular smokers are likely to die from a smoking-related disease. A regular smoker is 3 times more likely to de prematurely than a non-smoker.
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Give two pieces of epidemiological evidence related to smoking and lung cancer.
A smoker is 18 times more likely than a non-smoker to develop lung cancer. The chance of developing lung cancer reduces as soon as a person stops smoking.
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Why is it difficult to link smoking directly to cardiovascular disease using epidemiological evidence?
There are so many other factors that contribute, it's hard to just isolate the effect of smoking. This makes the link between smoking and cardiovascular disease less clear cut.
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What experimental evidence has there been for smoking and disease?
Some dogs forced to breathe unfiltered smoke. Developed changes in lungs similar to COPD and showed early signs of lung cancer. Other dogs breathed filtered smoke. These dogs were healthier but analysis of their lung tissue showed signs of cancer.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Give two ways in which data from epidemiological studies may be used.

Back

To identify countries that may be at greater risk. To identify if one sex is more at risk than the other.

Card 3

Front

Give two ways the information from the studies may then further be used.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give two pieces of epidemiological evidence related to smoking and early death.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Give two pieces of epidemiological evidence related to smoking and lung cancer.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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