Small studies and findings

The small studies I am using in the PSYA4 this January

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  • Created by: Vev
  • Created on: 22-01-13 17:34
Woody
YBOCS low discriminant validity with depression, YBOCS high internal consistency, YBOCS low test-retest
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Kahne et al.
Video games that involve other players have potentialy for social outcomes --- people who play the Sims a lot said they learned about problems in society and explored social issues
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Osswald et al.
Lemmings, Lamers or Tetris --- Prosocial group displayed more prosocial behaviour than others (67% prosocial, 33% neutral, 28% from antisocial) (Researcher knocking pens onto floor)
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Peng
People with higher aggressive personality score engage more with violent video games
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Sheese and Graziano
Violent video game or non-violent, doctored version of same game. Pps then given option of exploiting or cooperating with other player, non-violent group cooperated more
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Rapoport et al.
Cingulotomy reduces symptoms of severe OCD
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Holloway et al.
Pps and confederated in waiting room, either played good news story or not, then asked to bargain with each other. Pps more willing to be cooperative if they had listened to the good news story
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Maltby
Used McCutcheon's CAS, found 15% entertainment social, 5% intense personal and <2% borderline pathological
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McCutcheon
Absorption-addiction model: People pursue parasocial relationships if own life has deficits; relationship chance to escape reality and gain identity
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Jenkins and Jenson
Positive/Active view: Parasocial relationships serve an important function in forging a path for networking
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McCutcheon et al.
No relationship between parasocial relationships and insecure attachment types. Insecure types more likely to condone stalking. Correlation between stalking tendency and pathological attachment to celebrities.
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Menzies et al.
MRI scans of OCD sufferers and close relatives and control group. OCD sufferers and relatives less able to stop repetitive behaviours and also had larger amounts of grey matter in OFC.
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Salkovis and Kirk
Found that OCD sufferers had more intrusive thoughts on days they tried to repress them. Moderate success for ERP although only <50% had complete removal of symptoms
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Noble
240 children aged 7-11, watched nature programme or in control group. Nature group had learned more about morals than they had about facts. TV can contribute to social learning.
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Meyerowitz and Chaiken
Breast cancer self-examination: loss, gain or neutral conditions, loss group only one to show an increase in self examination (role of fear in persuasion)
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Vidrine, Simmons and Brandon
Student smokers, NC assessed, assigned condition: fact-based, emotion-based or control. Higher NC responded better to fact based, lower NC responded better to emotion based
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Hovland et al.
Hovland-Yale Model of Persuasion: Attention --> Comprehension --> Reactance --> Attitude change. (Source factors, Target factors, Medium factors, Message factors)
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Petty and Cacioppo
Central route or peripheral route, depends on NC and whether or not the person has direct experience of the situation
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Chaiken
Systematic processing: consider arguments carefully. Heuristic processing: take shortcuts, oversimplify.
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Huesmann et al.
Interviewed children about favourite TV shows age 5-8, then asked again age 20+, then close friend interviewed about how aggressive they are and criminal record. Violent TV shows lead to more aggression, males w/violent preference = criminal record
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Fogel
Effects of prosocial sitcoms on 8-12: watch or watch and discuss. Watch and discuss benefitted most from prosocial programmes
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Dougherty et al.
When cingulate gyrus removed, 45% of 44 patients showed marked improvement in their condition
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Baer et al.
Cingulotomy decreases levels of anxiety felt and the prevalence of OCD behaviour
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Dolberg
50-70% of patients reported reduction in symptoms following treatment by SSRIs compared to 5% improvement by placebo
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Scahill
CY-BOCS has high inter-rater reliability
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Rosenfeld
OCD sufferers have higher YBOCS scores than people with other anxiety disorders (high discriminant validity)
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Kim
Treatment for OCD should be reviewed every 2 weeks
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Schwarts et al.
Found via brain scans: OFC-CN-Thalamus loop has increased activity in OCD sufferers
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Pigott et al.
Drugs increase serotonin availability and reduce OCD symptoms
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Card 2

Front

Video games that involve other players have potentialy for social outcomes --- people who play the Sims a lot said they learned about problems in society and explored social issues

Back

Kahne et al.

Card 3

Front

Lemmings, Lamers or Tetris --- Prosocial group displayed more prosocial behaviour than others (67% prosocial, 33% neutral, 28% from antisocial) (Researcher knocking pens onto floor)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

People with higher aggressive personality score engage more with violent video games

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Violent video game or non-violent, doctored version of same game. Pps then given option of exploiting or cooperating with other player, non-violent group cooperated more

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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