Sleep Research Flashcards

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Sleep (Circadian Rhythms): Folkard (1996)
CASE STUDY: Kate Aldcroft, university student placed in a lab for 25 hours with no info about the time of day. Asked to play her bagpipes at the same time each day; slept for longer (up to 16 hours) and sleep/wake cycle extended to 30 hours.
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Sleep (Circadian Rhythms): Groblewski et al. (1980)
Supports spontaneous lengthening of circadian cycle, rats advance by an hour a day without exposure to daylight.
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Sleep (Circadian Rhythms): Empson (1993)
Human can keep their body clock in time through daily exposure to bright light or regular social cues (i.e phone calls).
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Sleep (Circadian Rhythms/ Control): Miles et al. (1977)
CASE STUDY: Young man blinded from birth had circadian rhythm of 24.9 hours although struggled to keep in a 24-hour schedule, even with the use of stimulants and sedatives.
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Sleep (Circadian Rhythms/ SCN): Ralph et al. (1990)
Transplanted SCNs between hamsters with different free running clocks; 20 hour cycle in mutant strain. Adult hamsters didn’t resume their previous 25 hour cycle, converted to 20 hours and vice versa.
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Sleep (Infradian Rhythms): Pengelly & Asmundson (1974)
Studied the golden-mantled ground squirrel; looked at the behaviour of 5 squirrels born in captivity and kept in constant darkness; cues about the seasons, were absent- squirrels continued to hibernate at roughly the same time as they would.
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Sleep (Infradian Rhythms): Pengelly & Asmundson (1974)
Found that woodchucks reversed their normal rhythm of hibernation when moved from USA to Australia as the seasons were at different times.
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Sleep (Infradian Rhythms/ Menstrual Cycle): Reinberg (1967)
Studied the menstrual cycle of a woman after she had spent 3 months in a cave with dim lighting. Her sleep/wake cycle lengthened slightly and her menstrual cycle became shorter; took a year for this to return to normal.
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Sleep (Infradian Rhythms/ Menstrual Cycle): Sabbagh & Barbard (1984)
found that women who spend a lot of time together often find that their periods become synchronised.
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Sleep (Infradian Rhythms/ Menstrual Cycle): Russell et al (1980)
Arranged to apply the pheromones of one woman to a group of sexually inactive women; rubbed on the upper lip of each participant. This was repeated daily for 5 months. A control group received the same treatment, but with no odour. 4/5 sychronise.
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Sleep (Infradian Rhythms/ Menstrual Cycle): McClintock (1971)
Male pheromones reset a woman’s biological clock as women who ovulate more when men are present are likely to have more children.
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Sleep (Infradian Rhythms/ PMS): Dalton (1964)
Found that PMS was also associated with an increase in accidents, lower academic achievement, suicides and crime.
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Sleep (Infradian Rhythms/ PMS): Johnson (1987)
CASE STUDY: PMS has been used as a legal defence. Ms English drove her car into her married lover after an argument, killing him. She was charged with murder but ultimately was placed on probation - argued actions related to PMS.
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Sleep (Infradian Rhythms/ SAD): Terman (1988)
Found that nearly 10% of those living in New Hampshire (North USA) suffered from SAD, compared to only 2% in Florida (South). This is an example of a circannual rhythm as it happens once a year.
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Sleep (Infradian Rhythms/ SAD): Eastman et al (1998)
Studied phototherapy and found that a placebo condition was less effective but 32% of participant did improve with the placebo alone.
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Sleep (Ultradian Rhythms): Carlson (1986)
Numerous cycles that are approximately 90 minutes (i.e. drinking, eating) - these rise and fall as they are linked to the biological clock in medulla.
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Sleep (Ultradian Rhythms): Kleitman (1961)
Observed BRAC pattern in the feeding times of infants who are fed on demand.
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Sleep (Ultradian Rhythms): Simunek and Sizun (2005)
Observed rhythm in eye movements at 20 weeks (foetus).
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Sleep Disruptions (Shift Work): Moore-Ede (1993)
Estimated that as a result of major accidents (those like Chernobyl and Three Mile Island) and ongoing medical expenses (shift work illnesses) the cost of shift worker fatigue is $77 Billion in the US.
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Sleep Disruptions (Shift Work): Knutsson et al (1986)
Found that individuals who worked shifts for more than 15 years were three times more likely to develop heart disease than non-shift workers.
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Sleep Disruptions (Shift Work): Martino et al (2008)
Linked shift work to a range of organ diseases, including kidney disease.
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Sleep Disruptions (Shift Work): Dawson & Campbell (1991)
Found that exposing workers to a 4-hour pulse of bright light appeared to help them work better.
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Sleep Disruptions (Shift Work): Czeisler et al (1982)
Found that increasing shift patterns to change every 21 days rather than every 7 days also proved beneficial as the workers had more time to adjust.
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Sleep Disruptions (Shift Work): Solomon (1993)
“It is difficult to meet with friends and divorce rates may be as high as 60% among all-night shift workers” – social disruption.
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Sleep Disruptions (Jet Lag): Sasaki (1980)
Reported on the performance of the Soviet Union volleyball team after travelling to play in Japan; lost matches the first 3 days, won by increasing margins over the next 6; put down to rhythms re-synchronising.
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Sleep Disruptions (Jet Lag): Recht et al. (1995)
Looked at performance of baseball teams; travel across 3 time zones. Home teams won 56%; travelling visitors eastward they were more likely to lose, no difference found westward.
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Sleep Disruptions (Jet Lag): O’Connor et al. (1991)
Looked at competitive swimmers travelling across 4 time zones – found no differences.
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Sleep Disruptions (Jet Lag): Lemmer et al. (2002)
Investigated performance of 13 athletes who had travelled westwards and 6 who had travelled eastwards – all affected, regardless of direction.
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Sleep Disruptions (Jet Lag Treatment): Arendt (1986)
Found that participants who took melatonin in the evening (local time) suffered almost no symptoms of jet lag.
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Sleep (Nature): Dement & Kleitman (1957)
Woke participants during REM, 80% reported they had been dreaming.
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Sleep (Nature): Green (1994)
Found that 30% of sleepers woken in SWS reported dreaming.
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Sleep (Deprivation): Peter Tripp (1959)
CASE STUDY: New York DJ did not sleep for 8 days; hallucinations and delusions, suggestion of long term effects.
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Sleep (Deprivation): Randy Gardner (1965)
CASE STUDY: 17 year old student stayed awake for 11 days, Dement researched his final 90 minutes. Disorganised speech, blurred vision and small amounts of paranoia; spent 14 hours 40 minutes asleep; when awoke appeared to have completely recovered.
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Sleep (Deprivation): Jouvet (1967)
Used the flower pot technique to test REM deprivation in cats, in the end the cats died.
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Sleep (Lifespan Changes): Van Cauter et al. (2000)
Examined several sleep studies involving male participants. Sleep was found to decrease during two life periods; ages of 16—25 and 35—50.
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Sleep (Lifespan Changes): Floyd et al. (2007)
Reviewed nearly 400 sleep studies, finding that REM sleep decreased by about 0.6% over a decade. The proportion of REM sleep increases from about age 70, though this may be due to overall sleep duration declining.
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Sleep (Lifespan Changes): Eaton-Evans and Dugdale (1988)
Found that the number of sleep periods for a baby decreases until about 6 months of age, then increase until 9 months of age, before slowly decreasing again. This may be due to teething problems.
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Sleep (Lifespan Changes): Dement (1999)
Reported that over 40% of a group of healthy men and women ages 65 to 88 had some form of sleep apnoea, the majority being frequent ‘micro-arousals’, which are unremembered brief awakenings lasting 3 seconds or less, occur 200-1000 times a night.
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Sleep (Lifespan Changes): Baird et al. (2009)
Found that infants 6-12 months with an increased risk of waking between midnight and 6am, had mothers who had experienced depressive symptoms prior to becoming pregnant.
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Sleep (Lifespan Changes): Borbely et al. (1981)
Questioned adults aged 65 to 83 on their sleeping habits, finding that 60% of them reported taking frequent daily naps. Sleep in the elderly is more interrupted, but they continue to need to same amount of sleep they did in early adulthood = naps.
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Sleep (Functions - Evolutionary): Meddis (1979)
Predator-Prey Sleep Theory: sleep evolved to keep animals hidden from predators when usual activities, like foraging, are not required.
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Sleep (Functions - Evolutionary): Webb (1982)
Hibernation Theory; sleeping provides a period of enforced inactivity, less energy is used, much like hibernation increases survival by reducing physiological demands.
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Sleep (Functions - Evolutionary): Stear (2005)
Reported that sleeping saves energy, keeps individuals from being lively at unnecessary times and is an adaption to ecological factors – evolutionary function.
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Sleep (Functions - Evolutionary): Allison and Cicchetti (1976)
Examined sleep patterns in 39 species, prey animals sleep less than predators.
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Sleep (Functions - Evolutionary): Pilleri (1979)
Found that Indus dolphins sleep for a few seconds repeatedly under constant threat from floating debris, contradicts, must be necessary for animals to put themselves at risk.
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Sleep (Functions - Evolutionary): Bently (2002)
Snoring cannot be explained – would attract attention; contradictive.
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Sleep (Functions - Restoration): Adam (1980)
reported that many restorative processes, like digestion, removal of waste products and protein synthesis, do occur during sleep, supporting the restoration explanation.
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Sleep (Functions - Restoration): Everson et al (1989)
found that depriving rats of sleep causes increased metabolic rate, loss of weight and death in about 19 days, possibly due to immune system damage, suggesting that sleep is necessary for restoration.
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Sleep (Functions - Restoration): Shapiro et al (1981)
Found that long-distance athletes, after running a 56-mile race, slept for longer. This suggests that sleeping does aid restoration.
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Sleep (Functions - Restoration): Horne (1988)
performed a meta-analysis of sleep deprivation studies, finding little evidence of reduced physical functioning or stress responses, suggesting that sleep is not primarily for restoration.
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Sleep (Functions - Restoration): Oswald’s Theory (1980)
Suggests that being awake disrupts the homeostasis of the body and that sleep is required to restore it. High levels of brain activity during REM sleep indicate brain restoration and repair.
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Sleep (Primary Insomnia): Dement (1999)
Reported on several cases of sleep-state misconception; asked to sleep in lab and complete questionnaire; one patient estimated how long it took to fall asleep, reported 1-4 hours and a mean of 90 minutes, never took more than 30 minutes.
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Sleep (Primary Insomnia): Dauvillers et al. (2005)
256 primary insomniacs, 72.2% reported family history of condition, compared with control group of 24.1%.
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Sleep (Secondary Insomnia): Monti (2004)
Found that many cases treated successfully by addressing underlying causes.
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Sleep (Secondary Insomnia): Katz et al. (2002)
Studied patients with chronic medical conditions – 50% suffer from insomnia.
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Sleep (Insomnia/Apnoea): Chest (2001)
Found a significant positive correlation between insomnia and OSA, suggesting a relationship between the two conditions.
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Sleep (Insomnia/Apnoea): Stickgold (2009)
Believes that a range of mental disorders, including depression and ADD are caused by sleep apnoea and insomnia. Apnoeac insomniacs had twice the incidence of depression than the normal population.
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Sleep (Insomnia/Apnoea): Horne (2009)
Argues that the claim of apnoea and insomnia causing mental disorders has not been proved and it is more probable that certain mental disorders lead to insomnia. He also believes that obesity is more responsible for rises in depression levels.
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Sleep (Insomnia/Personality): Kales at al. (1976)
Found that 85% of insomniacs had abnormal personalities, characterised by Psychasthenia, elevated levels of depression and conversion hysteria. Sufferers tended to internalise psychological disturbances, producing constant emotional arousal.
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Sleep (Insomnia/Personality): Grano et al. (2006)
Found that male insomniacs are impulsive characters, implying that male and female sufferers are effects by different personality traits.
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Sleep (Insomnia/Personality): Furukawa (2009)
Reported success in using behaviour treatments to address personality-linked insomnia, suggesting that maladaptive learning experiences may be important factors.
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Sleep (Walking): Oliviero (2008)
“The system that inhibits motor activity in SWS is not sufficiently developed in some children and adults”
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Sleep (Walking/ Genetics): Lecendreux et al. (2003)
Reported a 50% concordance in MZ twins, compared to 10-15% in DZ. Also found DQB1*05 – associated with sleepwalking.
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Sleep (Walking/ Genetics): Hubin et al. (1997)
Finnish twin cohort; genetic contribution to sleepwalking in children is 66% in males and 57% in females, for adults it is 80% for men and 36% for women.
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Sleep (Walking): Zadra (2008)
May be caused by sleep deprivation, studied 40 patients referred to a sleep lab; when allowed to sleep normally 50% sleepwalk; when sleep deprived 90% sleepwalk.
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Sleep (Narcolepsy): Thannickal et al. (2000)
Found that hypocretin producing cells in the hypothalamus of the brain were drastically reduced in people with narcolepsy.
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Sleep (Narcolepsy): Dement (1999)
Reported that a sleep research team in Texas found that mice that could not produce hypocretin in their brains developed symptoms of narcolepsy.
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Sleep (Narcolepsy): Montplaisir (2007)
Tested 16 patients with narcolepsy and cataplexy, had higher percentage of REM sleep – cause or effect? Also decreased hypocretin and/or dopaminergic abnormalities, suggest neurotransmitters associated.
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Card 2


Supports spontaneous lengthening of circadian cycle, rats advance by an hour a day without exposure to daylight.


Sleep (Circadian Rhythms): Groblewski et al. (1980)

Card 3


Human can keep their body clock in time through daily exposure to bright light or regular social cues (i.e phone calls).


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


CASE STUDY: Young man blinded from birth had circadian rhythm of 24.9 hours although struggled to keep in a 24-hour schedule, even with the use of stimulants and sedatives.


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Transplanted SCNs between hamsters with different free running clocks; 20 hour cycle in mutant strain. Adult hamsters didn’t resume their previous 25 hour cycle, converted to 20 hours and vice versa.


Preview of the back of card 5
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