sleep disorders - INSOMNIA

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What are the three factors leading to insomnia?
predisposing, precipitating and perpetuating
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What are predisposing factors?
when the individual has a genetic vulnerabiltiy to insomnia, due to a genetic vulnerability to the physiological state of hyper arousal
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what is hyperarousal?
it is a state of high physiological arousal, when awake or asleep, ultimately making it difficult to fall asleep.
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What are precipitating factors?
these include environmental changes and stress.
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What are perpetuating factors?
when you are tense or anxious before bed, you have an expectation of poor sleep.
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How do perpetuating factors lead to chronic primary insomnia?
when insomnia is maintained even when the precipitating factors are gone.
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What is a relevant IDA point for the explanation?
Nature/Nurture
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What is the nature element of the explanation?
the fact that it suggests our predisposing factors account for how vulnerable an individual may be to developing primary insomnia and their vulnerability to hyper arousal.
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What is the nurture element of the explanation?
the precipitating factors can influence our sleep and can lead to primary insomnia, it might suggest why people with a genetic vulnerability develop insomnia, the environmental factors aggravate the genetic ones.
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What did the research find for the predisposing factors?
in MZ and DZ twins there was a 33-38% genetic contribution to insmonia at 8-10yrs and a 14-24% contribution at 14-15yrs. overall it showed that insomnia in youths is moderatley related to genetic factors.
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how does this research support the explanation?
it shows that genes have an influence on insomnia, but as you grow up your environment has more of an impact, because you have been socialised for longer.
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what did research find for precipitating factors?
the degree of family conflict was significantly correllated with the frequency of insomnia, they found a casual connection between family conflict and later sleep problems.
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how does this research support the explanation?
it shows that environmental factors such as family conflict and stress correlated with insomnia, supports the idea of precipitating factors.
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What did the research into perpetuating factors find?
it researched the effectiveness of drugs, CBT and placebo effect on treating insomnia. sleeping pills showed the most dramatic improvements, followed by CBT.
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how does this support the explanation?
it shows that expectation for a bad nights sleep contributed to sleeping badly. if you expect a bad nights sleep you may feel anxious or tense and end up having a poor sleep.
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What was an issue with the research for precipitating factors? (AO3)
it was conducted using questionnnaires and interviews (self-report techniques) meaning the results were not objective nor reliable. there may have been demand characteristics so lacking internal validity.
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How could better research be carried out? (AO3)
conduct the study in a highly controlled sleeping lab.
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What is good about the explanation as a whole? (wider evaluation)
it covers biological, environmental and cognitive factors.
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what is a practical application of the research? (wider evaluation)
CBT should be advertised more as a highly successful long term treatment for insomnia, as unlike drugs it treats the cause and has no side effects.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are predisposing factors?

Back

when the individual has a genetic vulnerabiltiy to insomnia, due to a genetic vulnerability to the physiological state of hyper arousal

Card 3

Front

what is hyperarousal?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are precipitating factors?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are perpetuating factors?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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