Sleep and Biological Rhythms

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  • Created by: Ellie
  • Created on: 30-05-14 16:50
AO1 for lifespan changes in sleep: new-borns + 5-10 year olds
new-borns: 16-18hrs day consolidate learning, brain development, quiet + active, enter active sleep almost immediately but after 3 months quiet sleep is established. 5-10:boys sleep more than girls, sleep stage cycle increases to 70 mins, parasomnias
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AO1 for lifespan changes in sleep: pre-teens + teens
Pre-teens: Dement - sleep-wake utopia, teens: sexual and pituitary hormones released in pulses, circadian rhythms change - phase delay, 9-10 hours a night
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AO2 for lifespan changes in sleep
RLA - Wolfson Finland schools open later, culture bias: polyphasic sleep and Tynjala, lab experiments vs Empson, could be environmental differences in ages not biological differences
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AO1 for Restoration Theory of Sleep
Oswald: REM brain growth repair reorganization SWS body growth repair, Horne core + optional, 1. catch up 2. deficits 3. more REM when brain growing 4. increase in sleep when body growing/repairing, Jouvet
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AO2 for Restoration Theory of Sleep
contrast with hibernation theory Webb + combination, non-human animals e.g. Jouvet, Peter Tripp, case study - individual differences e.g. Randy Gardener
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AO1 for Evolutionary Theory of Sleep: Hibernation
Webb - hibernation: behavioural activity stops, heart rate slows, temperature drops during sleep - conserving energy in unproductive hours. Smaller animals lose heat faster sleep more, carnivores sleep more, animals low cows sleep less- need to graze
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AO1 for Evolutionary Theory of Sleep: Protection from Predators
Meddis - evolutionary past time night time was dangerous. sleeping keeps you quiet, most at risk prey animals sleep the most e.g. shrews
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AO2 for Evolutionary Theory of Sleep
reductionist - stages/dreams, contrast with restoration: biological evidence EEG vs assumptions - combination, animals non-human + in captivity sloths 16 vs 10, low face validity
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AO1 for explanations for insomnia
primary: psychophysiological, idiopathic: early age, run in families, abnormality in brain mechanisms that control sleep-wake cycle, secondary: medical + psychotic disorders + environmental factors
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AO2 for explanations for insomnia
Smith et al: insomniacs decreased blood flow to frontal + medial cortices, nature + nurture - diathesis-stress model Gregory et al, Vgontzas sleep lab criteria diagnosis unsatisfactory vs Empson
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AO1 for explanations for somnambulism
Genetics: Hublin Finnish MZ twins 66% concordence + 10x more likely if a family member suffers, 28 genes on chromosone 20 identified, underdeveloped system that inhibits motor activity in SWS, Zadra sleep deprivation 50% vs 90%
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AO2 for explanations for somnambulism
RLA if we can identify genes then gene therapy + Jules Lowe defense, determinism no control over actions could cause anxiety, Basetti HLA 50% sleep walkers but only 16 ps + also present in non sleep walkers, not 100% concordence diathesis-stress mode
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AO1 for explanations for narcolepsy: neurological condition + immune system mutation
neurological condition, fault in neural mechanisms controlling SWC - Vogel, mutation in immune system increased frequency specific type of HLA(organises immune system responses)found in narcoleptics
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AO1 for explanations for narcolepsy: low levels of hypocretin
low levels of neurotransmitter hypocretin, which plays a part in wakefulness, linked to narcolepsy. narcoleptic dogs had a mutation in the gene which disrupted processing of hypocretin Seigel 4 narcoleptics 93% fewer hypocretin neurons
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AO2 for explanations for narcolepsy
RLA - small hypocretin injections reduced cataplexy in dogs, bigger caused it more research needed, non-human animals, Lerman + Weiss psychodynamic approach but science says not voluntary, not always sexually aroused
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AO1 for circadian rhythms
24hrs opening + closing flowers, body temp cycle + SWC we wake up when it's light go to sleep when dark EZ + EP. Siffre, Folkard - cave for a few weeks - did not follow clock stuck to 24hrs
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AO2 for circadian rhythms
Siffre case study + beta bias, Czeisler individual differences 13-65 hours and cycle onset + artificial light can change SWC to 22 or 28, RLA chronotherapeutics circadian affects: heart r8, digestion, hormone secretions etc
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AO1 for infradian rhythms
>24hrs SAD serotonin + melatonin released when dark, Terman et al, Mcclintock
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AO2 for infradian rhythms
RLA - phototherapy popular + practical, culture bias SAD research mostly American - inuits, RUSSEL similar methodology evolutionary share tasks lionesses,animal evidence 4pherimonal effectsmainly rats, cycle alinment adaptive but can't extrapolate
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AO2 for ultradian rhythms
lab research vs Empson, REM = dream erroneous assumption
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AO1 for the role of EP
EP located in tiny cluster of nerve cells: SCN pair of structures in left n right hemisphere. Info on light received from optic nerve when pineal gland senses light melatonin inhibited melatonin makes sleep stoppin brain mechanisms promote wakefulnes
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AO1 for the role of EZ
as seasons change our EPs need resetting(entrainment) adjust to changed hrs of daylight it is reset everyday. vs free running - case study man blind from birth
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AO2 for the role of EP and EZ
Kate Aldcroft, Folkard, case study, artificial light Czeisler, Decoursey, non-human animals
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AO1 for disruption of biological rhythms
Jet lag - one day to adjust to each time zone crossed, phase delay east to west easier, wake up body awake, phase advance circadian trough, baseball teams, shift work, opposite of EPEZ REM severely affected drowsiness fatigue Knutsson + divorce rates
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AO2 for disruption of biological rhythms
Martino organ disease e.g. kidney, disruption or travel stress etc?, RLA Czeisler power plant utah, Lab experiments lack ecological validity e.g. Bovin et al
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AO1 for lifespan changes in sleep: pre-teens + teens

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Pre-teens: Dement - sleep-wake utopia, teens: sexual and pituitary hormones released in pulses, circadian rhythms change - phase delay, 9-10 hours a night

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AO2 for lifespan changes in sleep

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AO1 for Restoration Theory of Sleep

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AO2 for Restoration Theory of Sleep

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