Sleep - sleep and emotion regulation

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Gross (1998)
What is emotional regulation? “ The process by which individuals influence which emotions they have, when they have them , and how they experience and express their emotions”.
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Cicchetti et al., 1995
Emotional regulation is critical to initiating, motivating and organizing adaptive behaviour, and preventing stressful levels of negative emotions and maladaptive behaviour.
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We know that sleep is critical for optimal cognitive functioning and sleep deprivation can impair cognitive performance. But it’s also critical for our ....
emotional and mental health.
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Vandekerckhove and Cluydts, 2010
Studies have found that REM sleep alterations and abnormalities are related to daytime affective states
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Hobson & Pace-Schott, 2002
During REM sleep, emotion-related brain regions (e.g. amygdala, hippocampus) are activated&neurotransmitters including norepinephrine and serotonin are inhibited (Hobson & Pace-Schott, 2002). REM sleep has a central role in emotional memory theories.
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Riemann et al (2012)
Fragmentation of REM sleep may disrupt the functioning of emotional brain networks during this stage of sleep, contributing to further emotional disturbances.
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Benca et al., 1997
Mood Disorders have been linked to alterations in REM sleep.
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Emotion and sleep have a very intricate ....
bidirectional relationship.
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Emotional intensity effects how well we’re able to go to sleep. So if we are emotionally aroused or upset then then we ....
have a more difficult time falling asleep.
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But how well we sleep also influences our ....
emotions as well.
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Sleep effects our emotions in many different ways:
Emotion reactivity Emotion recognition. Emotion memories
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Dinges et al (1997) - POMS=
Profile of Mood States
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Dinges et al (1997) - background
This was a study that looked at lab sleep restriction for a period of a week (P1-P7).
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Dinges et al (1997) - method
So what you have here is participants who were restricted to sleeping 4-5hours per night each night across the 7 days.
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Dinges et al (1997) - findings
You have baseline 1 & 2. Then period of sleep restriction where there is a significant decrease in emotional well being.Once this sleep deprivation period is up,pp's had recovery where you start to see an increase in emotional wellbeing.
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Dinges et al (1997) - What you see here is really interesting, during the period of partial sleep restriction, participants listed more ....
cognitive and emotional complaints compared to baseline and recovery periods.
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Dinges et al (1997) - This study shows that sleep is important in ...
regulating our emotions
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Walker & Helm (2009) - Sleep helps us ....
encode emotional memories.
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Walker & Helm (2009) - REM sleep enables us to ...
maintain an emotional homeostasis.
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Walker & Helm (2009) - Emotional memories don’t feel as ...
intense as when you first experienced that event.
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Walker & Helm (2009) - REM sleep activates brain structures associated with ....
an emotion but it takes away the affective tone associated with that memory.
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Walker & Helm (2009) - Sleep proposed as ....
over night therapy.
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Walker & Helm (2009) - During waking you form ...
episodic emotional memories which involve coordinated activity between the hippocampus, cortical structures and the amygdala.
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Walker & Helm (2009) - What happens during REM sleep is that the ...
structures are reactivated in order to reprocess previously learned emotional experiences.
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Walker & Helm (2009) - During this process the ....
affective tone is decreased, so the emotion involved with the memory is reduced.
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Fosse et al., 2003
The most apparent link between daytime events and subsequent dream content is current emotional concerns and themes
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***De Koninck & Koulack 1975***
Emotional stress may affect dreaming and dream content as has been shown after watching a stressful film shortly before sleep
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***Germain et al. (2008)***
People with PTSD often have nightmares. have suggested that REM sleep increases abnormal amygdala and medial frontal cortex activation seen in PTSD patients, making these patients susceptible to posttraumatic nightmares.
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Yoo et al., 2007 - participants and design
26 healthy individuals aged between 18-30 years were assigned to either a sleep deprivation group or a control group. In the sleep deprived group participants were awake for 35 hours, in the control group participants were not deprived of sleep.
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Yoo et al., 2007 - method
During scanning, pp's performed an emotional stimulus viewing task in an event-related fMRI design,involving the presentation of 100 images from a standardized picture set.Stimuli ranged from emotionally neutral to increasingly aversive
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Yoo et al., 2007 - findings
What they found was that the control group and the sleep deprived group showed increased activation to negative stimuli. But the sleep deprived group 60% greater amygdala activity in comparison to the control.
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Yoo et al., 2007 - The extent of amygdala engagement can be influenced by...
a variety of connected systems, particularly the medial-prefrontal cortex (MPFC); the MPFC is proposed to exert an inhibitory, top-down control of amygdala function.
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***Yoo et al., 2007***
The effects of sleep deprivation include decreased connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and the amygdala, suggesting problems with controlling and regulating emotions
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Gujar et al (2011) - background
What this study really wanted to do is to assess whether sleep can modulate our ability to recognise emotions
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Gujar et al (2011) - method
This is a study looking at the ability to recognise emotional expressions in the face- Fear, sad, anger and happy. They looked at differences between individuals who had a nap and those who didn’t. Those in the nap group had a 90minute nap.
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Gujar et al (2011) - findings
The no nap group is much more sensitive to negative emotional expressions. Including both fear and angry faces. Interestingly the nap group is more sensitive to perceiving happy faces.
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Gujar et al (2011) - The nap group were further sub-divided into those who....
achieved REM sleep during their nap and those who didn’t
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Gujar et al (2011) - Those who achieved REM expressed a ....
significant reduction in ratings toward fearful expressions, yet a concomitant and significant increase in the rating of happy face stimuli.
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Gujar et al (2011) - Non-REM group showed ....
no significant changes in sensitivity to recognising emotions.
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***Thomsen et al., 2003***
Rumination can be defined as repetitive thoughts that arise which focus on problematic situations or events, in addition to the emotions and symptoms these evoke and their potential consequences
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***Guastella and Moulds (2007)***
It has been found that on the night following an examination, high-trait ruminators experienced more pre-sleep intrusive thoughts and reported poorer sleep quality compared to low-trait ruminators
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***Armitage, 2007***
An increase in REM sleep commonly occurs in depression
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Walker & van Der Helm, 2009
up to 90% of depressed patients report problems with their sleep.
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Steiger & Kimura (2010)
Depression- abnormalities in REM sleep. This includes reduced slow wave sleep, reduced REM sleep latency. Increased REM density and time.
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Martinez-Gonzalez et al., 2002
This is a table which shows the different classes of antidepressants (MAOIs; TCAs; SSRIs) and their effects on sleep. effects on REM sleep.They (MAOIs; TCAs; SSRIs) increase the time taken to get to REM sleep and decrease the time spent in REM sleep.
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***McCarley & Massaquoi, 1992 - REM-on & REM-off - cholinergic***
Cholinergic neurons appear to be the locus for REM-on neurons which initiate and/or maintain the production of REM sleep.
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***McCarley & Massaquoi, 1992 - REM-on & REM-off - this also slowly...***
excites REM-off neurons, which tend to be located in the Locus Coeruleus.
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***McCarley & Massaquoi, 1992 - REM-on & REM-off - As the REM-off neurons...***
become active at the end of a REM sleep episode because of their recruitment by REM-on activity, then then end REM sleep because of their inhibition of REM-on neurons.
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Overview - healthy individual
Healthy individual --> REM is important in emotional regulation --> REM deprivation impairs emotional regulation
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Overview - individual with depression
Individual with depression --> impaired REM sleep function. Decreased REM latency. Increased REM density --> REM deprivation improves emotional functioning
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***Perlis et al. (1997)***
proposed that cortical hyperarousal, experienced by the individual as increased cognitive activity (such as intrusive thoughts and worries while trying to sleep), results in higher levels of physiological arousal that compromises sleep.
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Sleep disruption may exacerbate the....
mental illness and the mental illness may exacerbate the sleep disruption.
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Biomarker - If there’s an overlap in....
pathways what you might see is disturbed sleep before any clinical diagnosis of a mental health condition.
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Biomarker - The question is, if we stabilise ....
sleep can we and have a positive impact upon mental illness?
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Biomarker - We can use sleep disruption as an ....
early warning for the diagnosis of a mental illness and of course early diagnosis provides the opportunity for early intervention.
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Biomarker - This gives us the a platform for the development of ...
new therapeutics. Can we stabilise sleep to alleviate some of the symptoms in mental illnesses.
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***Wulff et al., 2012***
Sleep disturbances similar with insomnia occur in up to 80% of people with schizophrenia
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***Manji et al., 2003***
Sleep disruption&mental illness share overlapping brain pathways.E.g.biogenic amine neurotransmitter systems found in bipolar disorder & sleep.Bipolar disorder involves the disruption of sleep thus suggesting interconnected neurotransmitter pathways
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***Taylor et al., 2005***
It has been found that people with insomnia have higher depression and anxiety levels compared to people that do not have insomnia and increased insomnia frequency is related to increased depression and anxiety.
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Summary - sleep and emotions have a ....
bidirectional relationship.
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Summary - Our emotional state influences ...
how well we sleep, and how well we sleep influences our subsequent emotions.
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Summary - REM sleep is important for ....
emotion regulation. REM deprivation impairs emotional function.
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Summary - Mood Disorders have been linked to...
alterations in REM sleep.
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Summary - Treatment with antidepressants improve ....
sleep patterns in individuals with depression by reducing REM sleep (density and time).
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Summary - Mental illness and sleep disruption share ...
overlapping pathways.
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***Anderson & Platten, 2011 - background***
Studies have shown that sleep deprivation is related to increased emotional reactivity to negative stimuli, therefore resulting in unsuccessful emotional regulation.
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***Anderson & Platten, 2011 - in one study, participants who....***
In one study, participants who had one night of sleep deprivation performed worse on a behavioural inhibition task in that they had difficulty inhibiting a response to negative stimuli.
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***Anderson & Platten, 2011 - Particularly, participants responded ....****
faster and gave more incorrect responses when presented with negative stimuli but not positive stimuli.
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***Anderson & Platten, 2011 - Therefore, this suggest that ....***
the participants showed increased reactivity to negative stimuli.
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***Pilcher & Huffcutt, 1996***
Meta-analysis which found that sleep deprivation has a stronger effect on mood than either cognitive or motor performance
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Cicchetti et al., 1995

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Emotional regulation is critical to initiating, motivating and organizing adaptive behaviour, and preventing stressful levels of negative emotions and maladaptive behaviour.

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We know that sleep is critical for optimal cognitive functioning and sleep deprivation can impair cognitive performance. But it’s also critical for our ....

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Card 4

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Vandekerckhove and Cluydts, 2010

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Hobson & Pace-Schott, 2002

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