Sleep

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  • Created by: Abbie0
  • Created on: 17-04-16 14:51
Morgan
Removed SCN of hamsters and found their CR disappeared. Bred ones with 20 hr cycles and transplanted their SCN to other hamsters which then developed a 20 hr cycle
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Boivin
Tested effect of different light intensities. 31 men's cycles were inverted for 3 days. Whenever they woke they were exposed to 5 hrs dim light followed by light of different brightnesses. Those exposed to the brightest light had their circadian rhyt
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Folkard
Contradicted influence of external cues. Participants lived in a cave for 3 weeks and relied on a clock to know the time. The clock was gradually sped up so 24 hrs passed in 22 and initially their circadian rhythms matched it but then went back to 24
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Oliviero
Found the system inhibiting motor activity during slow wave sleep isn't fully developed in children, explaining why young age is a risk factor for sleep walking
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Bassetti
Claimed to have isolated a specific gene which may contribute to sleep walking. It was found in 50% of sleep walkers and 25% of non sleep walkers. Suggests there is a genetic influence but it isn't the only cause and doesn't always result in sleep wa
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Sleep walking twin studies
There's a concordance rate of 50% in monozygotic twins and only 10-15% in dizygotic.
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Yamada
Analysed DNA sequences of 22 family members and found 7 regions on chromosome 20 that were common in sleep walkers, however only 9/22 family members sleep walked, showing perhaps environmental triggers are needed too as if it were just genes they'd a
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Restoration explanations - SWS (For A01)
Research showed a positive correlation between the amount of growth hormone and slow wave sleep. When people's cycles were reversed so they slept in the day, the release of growth hormone was reversed too so it was released when they were sleeping in
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Rat study
Rotated on a disc every time they were about to fall asleep and within 33 days they'd all died, showing sleep is needed for cell repair and survival
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Shapiro
Marathon runners slept 90 minutes longer for the next 2 nights after a 57 mile run and their NREM (when SWS occurs) increased 25%-45%. Suggests sleep is for restoration as the duration and type of sleep changed when extra restoration was needed
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Krueger
Lack of SWS can cause reduced immune functioning as antibodies and white blood cells can't be regenerated
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Randy Gardner
After being awake for 11 nights he experienced memory loss, hallucinations and loss of cognitive ability. Supports need of REM for breaks in neurotransmitter activity as those things could've been due to losing sensitivity in his neurons. Also when h
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Solomon
Divorce rates are 60% higher for night shift workers due to not being able to spend time with family. This is a negative effect of shift work but could also be a contributor to the effects of shift worker as the stress would make it even harder to sl
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Gold et al
Research to reduce the harmful effects of shift work. The research indicated more problems arise when doing rotating shifts as the body can't adjust to the new sleep-wake pattern quickly and just as they start to they're made to work at a different t
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Contradiction of Gold et al
Other research indicates forward rotating shifts are best for shift workers' bodies. They spend 1 week on mornings, 1 on afternoons then 1 on evenings. Gradually making the shift later means the body and mind are able to adjust to the new hours more
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Energy conservation support
Small animals with high metabolic rates sleep more than big animals. The animals that use more energy sleeping more supports the idea sleep is to conserve energy.
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REM proportions - energy conservation
Large animals have less NREM than smaller animals but not less REM. NREM uses less energy therefore this supports energy conservation as the small animals that use the most energy while awake have more NREM as it uses less energy. Large animals have
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Peter Tripp
Supports threat simulation. During sleep deprivation he and others that have experienced it had hallucinations which could have been the body's way of doing threat simulation without sleep to make up for not having dreams during that time.
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Babies REM
Supports threat simulation as babies spend 50% of sleep in REM and adults spend 20% in REM. Evolutionary psychologists think this is because babies have more new experiences so need more time in REM (when dreams occur) to practice responses to things
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Contradiction of threat simulation
Dreams only occur in 1/5 sleep stages, if sleep was solely for threat simulation we'd be dreaming the whole time
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Morin et al
Supports insomnia being caused by beliefs and maladaptive learning. He examined the beliefs that 145 older adults had about sleep and found the chronic insomniacs endorsed stronger beliefs about the negative consequences of insomnia than the self-def
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Winkleman
People suffering insomnia for 6 or more months had reduced levels of GABA in their brains
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Smith et al
9 women slept in a lab for 3 nights and polysomnography measured their eye movement, muscle activity and heart rhythm. Insomniacs had abnormal central nervous system activity in NREM sleep. Provides evidence for hyperarousal causing insomnia
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Card 2

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Tested effect of different light intensities. 31 men's cycles were inverted for 3 days. Whenever they woke they were exposed to 5 hrs dim light followed by light of different brightnesses. Those exposed to the brightest light had their circadian rhyt

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Boivin

Card 3

Front

Contradicted influence of external cues. Participants lived in a cave for 3 weeks and relied on a clock to know the time. The clock was gradually sped up so 24 hrs passed in 22 and initially their circadian rhythms matched it but then went back to 24

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Found the system inhibiting motor activity during slow wave sleep isn't fully developed in children, explaining why young age is a risk factor for sleep walking

Back

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Card 5

Front

Claimed to have isolated a specific gene which may contribute to sleep walking. It was found in 50% of sleep walkers and 25% of non sleep walkers. Suggests there is a genetic influence but it isn't the only cause and doesn't always result in sleep wa

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Preview of the back of card 5
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