Sleep

  • Created by: SHorner96
  • Created on: 28-05-18 14:58
What is the Brain Plasticity Theory of sleep?
Sleep enables changes in the structure and organisation of the brain and neurons via REM sleep.
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What is the Ontogenetic Hypothesis?
The idea that sleep aids development and learning
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Which theory states that sleep serves and evolutionary/adaptive function for survival, and keeps us out of danger in the dark?
The Inactivity Theory
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What is the Restorative Theory of sleep?
Sleep gives the opportunity for muscle growth and tissue repair to occur, including synthesis of proteins and immune recovery. Cognitive function is rejuvenated via depletion of Adenosine.
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Which theory suggests that the function of sleep is to reduce energy and metabolic consumption?
Energy Conservation Theory - which is also related to the Inactivity Theory
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How can we show that sleep is an active state?
Because sleep can be induced by activating certain areas of the brain
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What is a potential sleep factor that can be extracted from spinal fluid and urine?
Adenosine
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What is the role of the Ascending Reticular Activating System? (ARAS)
It is involved in waking, and lesions to this area will disrupt the sleep-wake cycle
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What is the Reciprocal Interaction Model?
The idea that GABA moderates the activation of the Cholinergic (CO) and Noradrenergic/Serotonergic (NA/SAO) systems. If the CO system dominates there is REM sleep, if the NA/SO system dominates there is NREM.
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What does the Serotonergic system do?
Its activity is similar to noradrenergic neurons, as it promotes waking. If serotonin is blocked it can cause insomnia.
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Which system uses neurons from the locus coeruleus that lead into the cortex and can trigger waking with high activity?
The Noradrenergic System
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What is the role of the Cholinergic System?
It is involved in REM eye movements and emotional tone of dreams (via amygdala connections). A PGO sub-system represents connections from the pons - LGN - occipital cortex.
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Which part of the brain plays a key role in the biological clock?
The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN)
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Which part of the hypothalamus promotes sleeping?
The anterior
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What does the posterior hypothalamus do?
Promote waking
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What sort of antagonism is there between the posterior and anterior hypothalamus?
Reciprocal - sleep is a decisive state.
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What is the role of NREM sleep?
It is a precursor to REM and reduces metabolic activity for conservation of resources. There is low sympathetic nervous system activity, and less cognitive activity.
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Which type of sleep is associated with dreaming, and what is the function of dreaming?
REM sleep - dream function is to catalogue events and process emotional information.
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Which area of the brain is activated during REM which might represent movement during dreams?
The motor cortex
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Why don't we remember all of our dreams?
We use less noradrenaline - noradrenaline helps with memory function
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What happens during REM sleep?
Unsynchronised neural firing - deep sleep with high brain activity, represented by Theta waves in the hippocampus.
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Which type of sleep is related to the evolution of the cortex?
REM sleep
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What do low levels of Orexin cause?
Narcolepsy
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What is a potential chemical treatment for insomnia?
Administration of adenosine
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Which sleep disorder may result in neuronal loss and cognitive deficiencies?
Sleep Apnea
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Disturbances of sleep occur in all disturbances of emotion - what does this show?
There is an overlap of brain processes involved in sleep and emotion
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Sleep deprivation affects memory and learning - emotional disturbance is also caused by increased activation of which area?
The amygdala
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Card 2

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What is the Ontogenetic Hypothesis?

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The idea that sleep aids development and learning

Card 3

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Which theory states that sleep serves and evolutionary/adaptive function for survival, and keeps us out of danger in the dark?

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Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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What is the Restorative Theory of sleep?

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Card 5

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Which theory suggests that the function of sleep is to reduce energy and metabolic consumption?

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