# Skills

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Investigative skills
identification of geographical questions
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Aim in wales
to investigate the changes in channel characteristics, flow and profile downstream in the Afon Conwy
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Random sampling
one that shows no biased results. We measured the angularity of stones in this way
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Systematic sampling
samples taken at regular intervals, such as 10m width apart measuring of river
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Stratified sampling
based on knowing something in advance: knowing where the sites were
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speed of the river
With a flow meter stand in 3 equal positions in the width of the river. The middle and the two sides. Put the flow meter so the impellor is facing towards the current of the stream and make sure you are not blocking any current.
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speed of the river 2
After 30 seconds read the digital meter and log. Repeat this as many times as you feel for it to make an average. Repeat in the 3 different sites.
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Cross sectional area and wetted perimeter
Using a meter ruler, measure the depth of 3 different measures along the chain suggested in the method for getting the width, they should be equal spaces apart. Put the meter ruler to the bottom.
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Cross sectional area 2
Put the meter ruler to the bottom of the river so that one of the smaller edges is against the current, do not force down. Read the measurements at the 3 different spots and do this at 3 different places along the 10 meter tape measure.
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Cross sectional area 3
Place a long chain along the width of the bed, making sure it is in each hole and dip. Have two people holding it at each end, making sure it was just above the water on each side. Keeping hold of the chain, take it onto land.
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Cross sectional area 4
Tape measure to measure the distance on the chain that it covered in the river. You may do this multiple times if you feel you need an average.
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Rock sampling for angularity and size
Use a random numbers sheet to find 10 spots along your 10 meter area of the course. Go to the 10 areas and randomly pick up 10 rocks that your finger first touched when placed in the water.
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Rock angularity and size 2
Using an angularity study sheet, compare each rock and write down the shape that looks most like the rock you are holding. Then use the callipers to measure the width by placing them on the long end of the rocks and closing them.
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Site steepness
Put two poles at the 10 meter mark and the 0 meter mark and make sure they are exactly opposite each other if possible. Using a clinometer, look through at the other poles red line and measure the angle of degrees it shows you inside.
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River discharge
calculate speed of flow, calculate cross sectional area, multiply the two values to give discharge in cumecs.
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Proportional circles
r= square root of ( value that you want the pie chart to represent divided by pi
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Triangular graphs
advantage: varying proportions and relative importance can be measured
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Measures of dispersion
range, interquartile range and standard deviation.
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Interquartile range
top quarter, upper quartile, lower quartile: lower quartile. IQR= UQ- LQ
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Spearmans rank
my value of __ is larger/ smaller than the critical value of __ at a 0.05/ 0.01 significance level. Therefore i can reject/ accept the null hypothesis. There is/ is no significant relationship between __.
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

to investigate the changes in channel characteristics, flow and profile downstream in the Afon Conwy

Aim in wales

### Card 3

#### Front

one that shows no biased results. We measured the angularity of stones in this way

### Card 4

#### Front

samples taken at regular intervals, such as 10m width apart measuring of river

### Card 5

#### Front

based on knowing something in advance: knowing where the sites were