Skill characteristics and their impact on transfer and practice

What is an open skill? - Give an example
A skill where the sporting environment is unpredictable & performer needs to make decisions.
1 of 45
What is an closed skill? - Give an example
A skill in a predictable environment, rather than adapting actions.
2 of 45
What is a gross skill?
When a perfomer uses a large muscle group within the skill.
3 of 45
What is a fine skill?
When a performer uses smaller, intricate muscle groups.
4 of 45
What is a self-paced skill?
Where the perform controls the speed in which the skill is being performed, and has some control.
5 of 45
What is a externally paced skill?
Where the performer has no control over the skill and how fast it is performed.
6 of 45
What is a discrete skill?
Where there is a clear beginning and end within a short sharp action.
7 of 45
What is a continuous skill?
Where there is no clear beginning or end and often apart of one part or sub-routine.
8 of 45
What is a serial skill?
Where several discrete skills are linked together to form a completed task.
9 of 45
What is a low organised skill?
A skill that can be broken down easily into a sub-routine.
10 of 45
What is a high organised skill?
Where the skillcan't be easily broken down into parts.
11 of 45
What is a simple skill?
Where there is limited decisions to be processed.
12 of 45
What is a complex skill?
Where there is many decisions to be made, and an amount of information needed before the peformer does the skill.
13 of 45
What is positive transfer? - Give an example
The learning of one skill helps or aids the learning of an another. E.g. Similar arm actions of the overarm in vollegball serve and a tennis serve.
14 of 45
What is negative transfer? - Give an example
Where the action of one skill hinders the learning of another. E.g. Badminton and tennis serve, Badminton uses a wrist movement while tennis uses the arm.
15 of 45
What is zero transfer? - Give an example
Where the learning of one skill has no effect on another, as they have no similarties. E.g. Swimming arm action & foot placement in rock climbing.
16 of 45
What is bilateral transfer? - Give an example
Where the learning of the skill is transferred across the body. E.g. When a right-footed footballer would be encouraged to use the left foot.
17 of 45
How can a coach ensure positive transfer?
Making sure training is realistic, that the skill is well learnt before moving on, reward/reinforce the player for correctly having positive transfer.
18 of 45
What is whole-practice?
When the skill is performed in it's entirety without it being broken down into sub-routines.
19 of 45
When would a coach use whole-practice?
When the skill is fast, ballistic and discrete, when the skill is highly organised & can't easily be broken down, skill is simple and does not require much thought.
20 of 45
What are the adventages of whole-practice?
Helps to create specific images that can be stored as a plan. Whole practice is more realistic, helps to produce the effect of positive transfer, and helps to make the skill consistent.
21 of 45
What are the disadvantages of whole-practice?
Can place unnecessary demands on the performer, posibility of fatigue, too much information for the performer to process.
22 of 45
What is whole-part-whole?
The performer has an attempt at the whole skill to get a feel for the movement, then each part of the task is practised individually then put back into the whole skill.Wh
23 of 45
When would a coach use whole-part-whole practice?
When a beginner is doing a complex task, and may need to concentrate on one part of the skill. When the skill is hard to break down, or has high organisation.
24 of 45
What are the adventages of whole-part-whole practice?
It can provide motivation when success is achieved, provide immediate feedback, improves performance and corrects errors.
25 of 45
What are the disadvantages of whole-part-whole practice?
May produce negative transfer effects, is more time consuming than just doing the whole thing.
26 of 45
What is progresive part practice?
Where the first part of the skill is taughtm then the rest if the parts are added in sequence.
27 of 45
When would a coach use progressive part practice?
When it is a serial skill where the order is important, used for dangerous skills, low-organised.
28 of 45
What are the adventage of progressive part practice?
Learner is allowed to focus on one aspect of the task, the learner can rest so fatigue is reduced, allows motivation levels to be restored.
29 of 45
What are the disadvantages of progressive part practice?
Can be time-consuming, might neglect the fell of the whole task, might ignore the links between sub-routines, danger of negative transfer between each sequence.
30 of 45
What is massed practice?
A type of practice which is continuous, with no rest between sessions.
31 of 45
When is massed practice used?
When the skill is discrete, simple and the environment is closed,
32 of 45
Whare are the adventages of massed practice?
It promotes fitness, allowing the performer to cope with the extended demands of the task. Makes the skill automatic, allowing fixed responses, and the player canrepeat the skill consistently.
33 of 45
What are the disadvantages of massed practice?
It can produce fatigue, danger of negative transfer, and the demands onthe player are higher.
34 of 45
What is disrubuted practice?
This is a type of practice which involves rest intervals between sessions.
35 of 45
When is distributed practice used?
When the skill is open & unpredictable.
36 of 45
What are the advantages of distrubuted practice?
Take the pressure of the performer, allows recuperation after a tough session.
37 of 45
What are the disadvantages of distrubuted practice?
It is time consuming, not to be used when sessions are tight and learning fast skills. There again is a danger of negative transfer.
38 of 45
What is varied practice?
Where training allows drill changes and types of practice so the player learns to adapt to changes in the enviornment.
39 of 45
When is varied practice used?
When the skill is openand the environment is unpredictable.
40 of 45
What are the advantages of varied practice?
Allows people to adapt their skills to changing enviornments, adds fun to the practice session increasing motivation and preventing boredom.
41 of 45
What are the disadvantages of varied practice?
Time consuming, increases the risk of negative transfer and danger of fatigue.
42 of 45
What is mental practice?
Where the performer goes through the performance in their mind without movement.
43 of 45
Why does a performer use mental practice?
As a part of the warm-up to provide preparation for the task ahead. Can also be before a move or a set play, mentally rehearsing what they're about to do.
44 of 45
What are the advantages of mental practice?
Improves confidence, lowers anxiety, stimulates muscle receptors so the player is better prepared and reaction time is increased.
45 of 45

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is an closed skill? - Give an example

Back

A skill in a predictable environment, rather than adapting actions.

Card 3

Front

What is a gross skill?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a fine skill?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a self-paced skill?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Physical Education resources:

See all Physical Education resources »See all Skill Characteristics & Their Impact On Transfer & Practice resources »