Skill Acquisition

Identify the 6 classification continuums
Muscular involvement, Environmental influence, Continuity, Pacing, Difficulty, Organisation
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Describe the two ends of the muscular involvement continuum
Gross, involve large muscular movements. Fine are intricate movements using small muscle groups which tend to be precise
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Which continuum classifies skills into those effected by the environment and those which are not?
Environmental skills (open and closed)
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What are the three points on the continuity continuum?
Discrete, serial, continuous
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Describe an internally paced skill
Performer controls the rate at which the skill is executed. Usually closed skills.
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What are the two ends of the difficulty continuum?
Simple skills (straightforward with very few judgements) Open skills (Involve many decisions and judgements)
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What continuum classifys skills into low and high organisation?
Organisation continuum
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Describe part practice
Working on isolated sub-routine with the aim of perfecting it
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When is whole practice used?
With skills that are high in organisation and need to be taught as a whole
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Describe whole-part-whole practice
Practicing the whole skill then isolating a sub-routine, then practicing the whole skill again
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Why is whole-part-whole practice used?
To recognise strengths and weaknesses, Allow some feel of the skill
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Give a practical example of progressive-part practice
Gymnast floor routine, triple jump, layup shot and trampoline routine
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Describe massed practice
Involves very short or no breaks
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When is massed practice used?
For discrete skills, with highly motivated performers with good fitness levels
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Why is distributed practice used?
Rest intervals allow the performer to receive feedback, Helps to maintain motivation and is good for dangerous and complex skills
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Describe fixed practice
Specific movement pattern is practiced repeatedly in a stable environment. Often used in the form of drills
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Give a practice example of varied practice
Small sided game in football, where the performer can work on passing, positional play and strategies
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What is proactive transfer?
When a skill learnt previously affects one yet to be learnt
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What is retroactive transfer?
When learning a new skill affects one previously learnt
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What is positive transfer?
When the learning of one skill helps that of another
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What is negative transfer?
When the learning of one skill hinders that of another
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What is bilateral transfer?
The transfer of learning from one limb to another
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When does positive transfer occur?
When two skills are similar in some way, having already mastered one of the skills, learning the second one becomes easier
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How can positive transfer be optimised?
Making sure individual understands similarities between skills, Making sure basics of first skill are well learnt, variable practices that imitate a game situation, make performers aware of transferable elements
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When does negative transfer occur?
When one skill makes the learning of another more difficult, happens when a common stimulus requires a different response
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How can negative transfer be limited?
Make sure athletes are aware of differences, Practice similar to match situations, Clear and concise demonstrations,
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How does bilateral transfer take place?
Cognitive aspects (understanding what is required) Transfer of the motor programme (Pattern of one movement learned by one limb is subconsciously used by another)
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Describe operant conditioning
Trial and error learning, correct response is rewarded, this reinforces the correct response, behaviour is shaped and changed
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What is thorndikes law of exercise?
Rehearsing of repeating action strengthens reinforcement
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What is thorndikes law of effect?
if followed by a pleasant reaction, then S-R bond is strengthened; if followed by a negative reaction the S-R bond is weakened
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What is thorndikes law of readiness?
Athlete must be both mentally and physically ready capable of performing the skill effectively
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Describe the cognitive learning theory
Learning is best achieved by premising the whole skill, learner must understand and think about the problem as a whole, Thought processes are dependant on perception, Learner will use intelligence, knowledge and previous experience to predict solutio
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What is cognitive learning theory based on?
Copying the behaviour of others
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What are the three stages of learning?
Cognitive, associative, autonimus
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Briefly describe the cognitive stage of learning
Learner trying the create mental image, demos should be vital, focus should be on important cues, performance will be inconsistent, specific feedback needed
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Describe the associative stage of learning
Practice stage, attends to relevant cues, big improvements are made in performance, motor programmes are developed, learner develops ability to use internal feedback, verbal feedback used
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Describe the autonimus stage of learning
Learner can execute the skill with little conscious thought, can concentrate on other factors, motor programmes established and stored, less need for external feedback, if practice not maintained performer will return to associative stage
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What are the advantages of verbal feedback?
Can reinforce good movement and identify errors to be corrected, can hold the attention of performer to be used to motivate
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What are the disadvantages of verbal guidance?
Can lead to info overload, inaccurate guidance can hinder skill
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Describe visual guidance
images or demos used to help learner, coach can highlight key points of movement reinforcing them, image and demos should be accurate
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What is the difference between manual and mechanical guidance?
Manual guidance involves the physical support from another person, mechanical guidance involves support from a mechanical device
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What are the disadvantages of manual and mechanical guidance?
Can be over-restrictive, can lead to false kinestetics
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Describe intrinsic feedback
from internal proprioceptors about the feel of the movement
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Describe extrinsic feedback
From external sources such as the teacher/coach or team mates, received by visual and auditory systems and is used to argument intrinsic feedback
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Describe positive feedback
Received when the movement is successful reinforcing learning
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Describe negative feedback
Received when movement is incorrect, used to correct movement to make it sucessful the next time
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What is knowledge of performance?
Feedback about the outcome of our movement. It is extrinsic. Can be positive or negative and is important to improve the performance the next time
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What is knowledge of performance?
Concerns the movement itself and the quality of it
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What are the disadvantages of intrinsic feedback?
In the cognitive stage performers may not be able to intercept information correctly and performance will deteriorate
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What are the advantages of extrinsic feedback?
Coaching points can lead to improvements as long as information is accurate
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of positive feedback?
+can lead to positive reinforcement +Extremely motivating +Helps build self esteem -If undeserved S-R bonds and performance can deteriorate -Some performers do not respond to praise and may ignore it
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What are the advantages to negative feedback?
+Some are motivated by this +Allows performer to be clear which aspects need improving +Best suited to autonomous learners who require skill refinement
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What are the advantages and disadvantages to knowledge of results?
+Allows performer to see the outcome of their action +Can motivate performer -May demotivate if performers are unsuccessful
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What are the disadvantages of knowledge of performance?
-May demotivate if performers are unsuccessful
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Who came up with the Multi-store model?
Attkinson and Shiffren
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What happens at the short-term memory store?
The STSS is a limitless memory store for holding information for about one second, viewed as a subdivided part of the STM. Selective attention selects relative stimuli in the STSS and directs them into the STM for further processing.
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Describe the long term memory
LTM contains well-learned, retained and permanent coded info, it has a limitless capacity, well learned and rehearsed movement skills from the STM will eventually be stored in the LTM, Relevant info in LTM can be stored in STM workspace
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of the multi store memory model?
+Simplifies memory process +Explains how those with Brian damage have dysfunctional memory. -Too simplified -Does not prove distinction between STM and LTM and does not explain their interaction
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What are there three levels of Craik and Lockharts level of processing model?
Structural, Phonetic, Semantic
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What are the basics off the levels of processing model?
Opposes the view that there are set memory stores, it explains what we do with information rather than how it is stored.
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Information received by the brain will be transferred to the long-term memory and is remembered if it is:
Considered, understood and has meaning
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Describe the two ends of the muscular involvement continuum

Back

Gross, involve large muscular movements. Fine are intricate movements using small muscle groups which tend to be precise

Card 3

Front

Which continuum classifies skills into those effected by the environment and those which are not?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the three points on the continuity continuum?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe an internally paced skill

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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