Skill Acquisition

Skill
A learned ability to bring about predetermined results with maximum certainty
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Muscular Involvement Continuum
The precision of movement, gross vs fine
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What is gross muscular involvement?
Involves large muscle movements where there is little concern for precision. E.g. swimming
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What is fine muscular involvement?
Involves more intricate movements using small muscle groups, usually involves accuracy. E.g. archery
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Environmental Influence Continuum
How environmental conditions affect the movement skill, open vs close
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What is open environmental influence?
Skills that are affected by the environment, e.g. football pass
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What is closed environmental influence?
Skills that are not affected by the environment, performance becomes a habit. E.g. shooting in basketball
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Continuity Continuum
How clearly defined the beginning and end of the movement skill are, discrete vs serial vs continous
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What is discrete continuity?
The skill has a clear beginning and end. E.g penalty shot in football
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What is serial continuity?
The skill has a number of discrete elements that are put together. E.g. long jump
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What is continuous continuity?
The skill has no definitive beginning and end. E.g. cycling
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Pacing continuum
The level of control the performer has over the timing of the movement skill, self-paced vs externally-paced
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What is self-pacing?
The performer determines when the movement skill starts together with the rate at which it precedes. E.g. high jump
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What is externally pacing?
The control of movement skill is not determined by the performer but by the environment. E.g. receiving a hockey pass
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Difficulty continuum
How complex the movement skill is determined by perceptual load & decision making, time, quantity of sub-routines, speed, accuracy & feedback, simple vs complex
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What is simple difficulty?
When there is small amounts of information to be processed & few decisions made. E.g. swimming
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What is complex difficulty?
When there are large amounts of information to be processed & lots of decisions. E.g. somersault
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Organisation continuum
If the skill is split into sub-routines, low vs high
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What is low organisation?
When the skill is made up of sub-routines that are easily separated & practiced by themselves. E.g. swimming
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What is high organisation?
Movement skills where sub-routines are very closely linked together and very difficult to separate without disrupting the skill. E.g. cartwheel
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Part Practice
When the skill is low in organisation and can be split up into sub-routines
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Whole Practice
The skill is presented to the learner and practiced in its entirety without breaking it down into sub-routines
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Whole-Part-Whole Practice
This is when the whole skill is taught and practiced and then a specific weakness is isolated and worked on
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Progressive-Part Practice
The first part of the skill is taught and then the rest of the parts are added in sequence after each part is perfected
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Mass Practice
Practicing a skill without a break and occurs when an activity is repeated continuously with little rest periods
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Distributed Practice
Consists of short, frequent practice sessions interspersed with rest intervals or intervals with learning another skill
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Fixed Practice
This involves a stable and predictable practice environment with practice conditions remaining the same
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Varied Practice
Practice needs to be varied so that the performer can come into contact with a range of experiences
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Reinforcement
Something that strengthens a learned behaviour and makes it more likely to be repeated in the future
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Law of Exercise
A performer should practice in order to strengthen the S-R bond
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Law of Effect
If the response is followed by a satisfier the S-R bond is strengthened. If the response is followed by an annoyer the S-R bond is weakened
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Law of Readiness
The performer must be physically and mentally capable of doing a task
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Hull's Drive Theory
If the S-R bond is strong the performer must be motivated to do well, too much repetition can lead to inhibition
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Cognitive Theory
Previous experiences are used to problem solve, learning is best achieved if the skill is presented as a whole
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Bandura's Model
Demonstration, attention, retention, motor reproduction, motivation
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Positive Transfer
Learning one skill facilitates the learning of an additional skill
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Negative Transfer
Learning one skill hinders the learning of an additional skill
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Bilateral Transfer
Transferring skills from one side of the body to the opposite side
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Proactive Transfer
When a skill presently being learned has an effect on future skills
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Retroactive Transfer
Occurs when the skill being developed has an effect on one that has been previously learned
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How to ensure positive transfer?
Ensure the first skill is grooved, highlight where transfer can take place, ensure practice environments are similar & give reinforcement
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How to limit negative transfer?
Ensure the first skill is understood, highlight any mistakes, don't teach the skills together
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Visual Guidance
Any method where the performer sees the correct method to perform the skill, e.g. demonstration
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Verbal Guidance
The coach instructs and directs the performer to the key points of the skill by telling them what to do and how to do it
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Manual Guidance
When a performers body is manipulated by another person
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Mechanical Guidance
Using a piece of equipment to aid and shape movement
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Intrinsic Feedback
Sensory feedback about the physical feel of the movement as it is being performed
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Extrinsic Feedback
Comes from an external source
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Positive Feedback
Received usually from the coach about good aspects of the skill
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Negative Feedback
Received when the movement or skill is incorrect
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Knowledge of Results
Feedback about the end result, e.g. score
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Knowledge of Performance
Feedback concerning the quality of the movement
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The precision of movement, gross vs fine

Back

Muscular Involvement Continuum

Card 3

Front

Involves large muscle movements where there is little concern for precision. E.g. swimming

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Involves more intricate movements using small muscle groups, usually involves accuracy. E.g. archery

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

How environmental conditions affect the movement skill, open vs close

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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