skeletal sport

what is the axial skeleton?
part of the skeleton, that consists of the head and the trunk. it consists of 80 bones. composed of the cranium, the rib cage, sternum and the verterbrate.
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what is the appendicular skeleton?
formed by the pectoral girdles, the upper limbs, the pelvic girdle and the lower limbs.
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what are the bones in the foot?
the phalanges, the metatarsals, tarsals and talus.
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what are the bones that make up the hand?
the phlanges, the metacarpals and carpals.
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what are the bones that make up the verterbrate?
the cranium, cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sarcum and the coxcyx.
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what are ligaments?
they hold bone to bone. ligaments are made of dense layered collegen fibres- fibourus connective tissue.
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what are the properties of ligaments?
tough, elastic fibres, stabilise the bones, strong.
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what injury can be caused to ligaments?
sprains.
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what are tendons?
they connect muscle to bone. tendons are are made of dense layered collegen fibres- fibourus connective tissue.
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what are the properties of tendons?
sturdy, non-elastic, size changes depending on the muscle, anchor.
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what injury can be caused to tendons?
strain.
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what are the functions of the skeleton?
movement, shape, protection, red blood cell production, mineral storage, support
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what are the 5 types of bones?
flat bones, irregular bones, long bone, short bone, sesamoid bone.
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what are long bones and their function ?
are longer and wide. their function is to support the weight of the body and facilate movement.
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what are short bones and their function?
are about as long as they are wide. they provide stability and some movement.
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what are flat bones and their function?
they are needed for protection of internal organs such as the brain and heart. they provide a large surface area for attachement for muscles.
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what are seasmoid bones and their function?
embeded in tendons. they are small round bones found in the knees and feet. they protect tendons from stress and wear.
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what are irregular bones are their function?
vary in shape and structure and dont fit into any other category..
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what are the long bones?
femur, clavicle, tibia, fibula, ulna, radius, phalanges, humerus, metacapals/tarsals.
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what are the short bones?
carpals, tarsals and talus.
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what are the flat bones?
cranium, ribs, sternum and scapula.
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what are the irregular bones?
verterbrate collumn, illium, pubis, ischium.
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what are the sesamoid bones?
patella.
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what bones provide movement?
long, flat, irregular, seasomoid
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what bones provide shape?
all bones.
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what bones provide protection?
flat and irregular.
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what bones provide blood production?
long.
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what bones provide mineral storage?
all bones.
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what bones provide support?
short and irregular.
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what is a joint?
is a place where two or more bones meet. without joints the body will not be able to move. they provide movement within the body.
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what is cartlidge and its properties?
prevents the ends of the bones rubbing together at joints. it has a slippery surface and lubricates the joint. its properties are: tough, flexible, and cushions the end of the bone.
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what are the three classifications of joints?
fixed/fused. cartiaginous. synovial.
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what are fixed/fused joints?
fewer than 10 in the body. called fixed as the bones are held together by tough fibres the bones cant move at this joint.
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what are cartilaginous joints?
slightly moveable allow some movement. but ligaments stop the bones moving too far. the bones are seperated by a cushion.
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what are synovial joints?
freeley moveable joints. theese are 90% of joints in the body.
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what are hinge joints and where are they located?
only allows forwards and backwards movement. found in the knee and elbow and ankle.
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what are pivot joints and where are they located?
a ring of bone that fits over a bone protusion around which it can rotate, these joints only allow rotation. found in the radio-ulnar joint and the axis and atlis joint in the neck.
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what are gliding joints and where are they located?
two flat faces of bones that slide over one and another. allow a tiny bit of movement in any direction. found between carpals, tarsals inrercapals/tarsals joint, subtalar joint and processes of the verterbrate.
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what are saddle joints and where are they located?
the ends of the two bones fit together in a special way allowing flexion, extension, adduction and abduction. found in the base of the thumb.
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what are ball and socket joint and where are they located?
rounded end of the bone fits inside a cup-shape ending on another bone allows movement in any direction. found in the hip and shoulder.
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what are condyloid joint and where are they located?
oval shaped bone which can fit into a correspondingly shaped bone allows flexion extension adduction and abduction. found between metacapals and phalnages and wrist joint.
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what are the structures of a synovial joint?
articluar cartlidge, synoival membrane, synovial fluid, meniscus, pads of fat, bursa, joint capusle and ligaments.
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what is the articular cartlidge?
reduces friction between bones. it stops bones rubbing together.
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what is the synovial membrane?
secretes/ produces/ encases synovial fluid.
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what is the meniscus?
helps to stabilsie the joint.
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what are pads of fats?
absorb shock and fill large spaces in the joint.
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what is bursa?
bursae- are fluid filled sacs that reduce friction between tissues.
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what is a joint capsule?
encloses a joint.
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what is the anatomical postion?
standing postion. feet slightly apart. palms facing forwards. eyes facing forwards. thumbs pointing away from the body.
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what is the midline of the body?
an imaginery line that runs through the centre of the body. diving between the posterior and anterior between right and left sides.
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what is pronation and supernation?
radioulnar joint when the palm turms upwards for supernation and downwards for pronation.
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what is circumduction?
combonation of flexion, adduction and abduction.
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what is dorsiflexion and plantar flexion?
specific to the ankle joint. plantar flexion- pointing the foot and toes to the ground. dorsiflexion- pointing the toes and foot towards the tibia.
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what is flexion and extension?
flexion- bones are brought closer together. extension- bones are taken further apart.
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what is medial and lateral rotation?
rotating movement in and away from the midline of the body at ball and socket joints.
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what is adduction and abduction?
abduction- at a joint makes the body part move away from the midline of the body. adduction- the same as abduction but towards the midline of the body.
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what is lateral flexion?
unique to the spine. the bending of the spine sideways either at the trunk or the neck.
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what is horizontal abduction and adduction?
occurs when the shoulder is flexed with the arm parralell to the ground adduction- occurs when the shoulder towards the midline of the body. abduction- the same as adduction but the moving away from the midline of the body.
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what are the functions of the verterbrate collumn?
support- weight of the head maintain the balance in an upright postion. protection- absorbs shock of walking running. encloses and protects the spinal cord. movement- allows movement, provides an attachement for the ribs pelvic girlde and back muscle
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what are the verterbrate collumn bone classifications?
top of the cervical axis and atlis joint-synovial joint. cervical, lumbar and thoracic -cartilginous joint. sacrum and coccyx- fused joint.
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what movement dos the verterbrate collumn allow?
flexion/extension. lateral flexion. rotation.
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what are the impacts of lifestyle on the skeletal system?
DIET- malnutrition, overweight/fat. SUPPLEMENTS- vitimans and minerals added to the diet. MEDICATION-to treat illnesses. UNTREATED IMBALANCES- lumbar lordsis. SUNSHINE- vitiman d to absorb calcium
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what is high impact actvities and examples?
activities that include both feet off the ground at the same time. they burn more calories per hour than low impact options EXAMPLES- skippiing, rugby, sprinitng, jogging and zumba.
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what are low impact activites and examples?
activities that only have no feet taken from the ground or no feet on the ground. EXAMPLES- cycling, rowing, swimming, yoga, weightlifting.
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what are short term effects of exercise on the skeletal system?
+increase prodcution of synovial fluid to increase the range of movement and reduce the impact at the joint. - can increase the risk of injury to joints and bones esepcially people new to the sport.
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what are long term effects of exercise on the skeletal system?
+ increased bone density, strengths of ligments. risk of bone injurys e.g. osteoporisis is reduced. the range of motion at a joint is increased and thicker articular cartlidge.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what is the appendicular skeleton?

Back

formed by the pectoral girdles, the upper limbs, the pelvic girdle and the lower limbs.

Card 3

Front

what are the bones in the foot?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what are the bones that make up the hand?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what are the bones that make up the verterbrate?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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