Sino-Japanese Conflict: 1931-1945

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Japans motivations for expansionism:
USA stops trade, begin to see Japan as a threat. Japan face recession, decides to expand in China
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30th May Incident, 1925:
•Chinese workers demands rejected by a cotton mill in Shanghai • Japanese open fire in melee (1 dead, 7 wounded) • British police prosecute the workers and not the Japanese • Led to mass demonstration on May 30th, British police kill 13 • More demon
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Tanaka Memorial:
•Document submitted to the Emperor Hirohito that stated: ‘Japan should capture Manchuria and Mongolia, Break the 9 powers agreement, Take over China and then the world’
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Mukden Incident:
•Japan blows up Mukden and blames Chinese rebels • Pretext to take over Manchuria, which they did in 6 months • Chiang Kai Shek appeals to the League of Nations but doesn’t get any help
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Manchuguo:
a.Japan changes the name of Manchuria to Manchuguo b. It becomes an Independent Chinese Nation, ruled by the puppet emperor to Japan, Pu yi c. Japan attacked Shanghai but didn’t take over, formed a Sino-Japanese government
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Treaty of Tanggu, 1933:
•Japan demanded a demilitarized zone near the Great Wall with no GMD troops allowed • Chang Kai Shek accepted and lost a lot of support • Took over the Great Wall • Resulted in a ceasefire on May 31st 1933
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Kidnap of Chiang Kai Shek:
•Zhang Xueliang kidnaps Chiang Kai Shek • Forces him to work with the CCP in the Second United Front
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Causes of the Sino-Japanese War:
a. Japanese Expansionism b. Tanaka Memorial c. Mukden Incident d. Lack of international response e. China already humiliated by foreigners f. Marco Polo Bridge incident
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Marco Polo Bridge Incident, July 1937:
•Chinese and Japanese soldiers were stationed near the bridge • Japanese spot that one soldier is missing, demand to search Wanping, Chinese refuse • Japan attacked and took over the bridge, driven off again • Excuse for Japan to launch a full scale
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Battle for Shanghai:
•Japanese vs. GMD • 3 months • 1 million troops •GMD retreat, but Japanese suffer losses o Japanese advance down Eastern coast o GMD withdraw up Yangtze river to Chongqing
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GMD in 1945
- Shortage of military hardware - Lost many Whampao trained at Shanghai - 1.2-5.7 million
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CCP in 1945
- Guerilla tactics - 92 000-910 000
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100 Regiments Offensive:
• 400 000 CCP troops attack 100 Japanese regiments
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100 regiments offensive Response:
• Japan attacks CCP • ‘3 All policy’- kill all, burn all, loot all • 100 000 killed, Japan regains lost territory
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New Fourth Army Incident, January 1941:
• CCP New Fourth Army surrounded by 80 000 Nationalists • Leader killed • 2000/9000 escaped • Chiang Kai Shek orders army to be disbanded but Mao re-organises it • End to United Front
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Pearl Harbour:
• Japanese resources stretched because of War with China • Japan bombs Pearl Harbour to distract the US while they raided the Dutch East Indies for resources
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US Involvement in China:
• Joseph Stilwell acts as an advisor • Spent $1 billion on China by 1945 • 55 US marine advisors and military advisors • Wedermeyer replaces Stilwell
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Ichigo Offensive:
• Japanese brush aside Chiang’s forces • Knock out Ally airfields • Open Japanese route to Indo-China
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Dixie Mission, July 1944:
• US improve relations with the CCP (not as corrupted as the GMD) • Ended because of McCarthyism • But: US did not extend aid to GMD either
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End of War:
• Hiroshima and Nagasaki • Japan surrenders to the Reds • Russia declare War with Japan • US airlift GMD to liberated areas
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

30th May Incident, 1925:

Back

•Chinese workers demands rejected by a cotton mill in Shanghai • Japanese open fire in melee (1 dead, 7 wounded) • British police prosecute the workers and not the Japanese • Led to mass demonstration on May 30th, British police kill 13 • More demon

Card 3

Front

Tanaka Memorial:

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Mukden Incident:

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Manchuguo:

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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Comments

NZLHistory

These 20 flashcards cover all the key aspects of Sino-Japanese relations in the years before the Sino-Japanese war and are particularly useful for revising its origins.

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