Simplifying reliability and validity

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Describe internal validity
Clear link between the IV and the DV (cause and effect established). There are controls and no extraneous variables.
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Describe external validity
Ecological validity is high because the study was realistic. Measurement can be applied to other circumstances. Results can be generalised.
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What does internal reliability refer to?
Study is standardised, all participants experienced conditions in the same way. There is consistency in the measurement.
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What does external reliability mean?
Study can be replicated to find the same results. Consistent results found again. Large sample size makes reliability more likely.
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Summarise reliability
Looks for standardisation, consistency (internal) and replicability (external).
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What is another way of overcoming order effects without counterbalancing?
Equivalent forms of a test (different but comparable versions with the same standards). Participants tested twice, once with each form.
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What is inter rater reliability?
The extent to which 2 or more observers generate the same ratings when they are watching the same behaviour.
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How can reliability be re-tested?
The same participants complete the test twice at different times. 1st and 2nd scores are correlated and if the correlation coefficient is highly positive, the test is reliable.
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What is the problem with this re-testing reliability method?
Order effects.
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What does validity refer to?
Whether a study measures or examines what it claims to measure or examine.
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What is face validity?
Extent to which a measure appears on the surface to measure what it is suppose to measure.
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Describe criterion validity
Assess validity by comparing the results with another measure.
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What is concurrent validity?
When validity is assessed by comparing with another measure at the same time e.g. Johannson.
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What is predictive validity?
When validity is assessed by comparing results with another measure at a much later time.
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Describe construct validity
Assessing validity by investigating if the measure really is measuring the theoretical construct it is supposed to be.
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What is internal validity?
Related to what actually happens in a study. Whether the IV has an effect on the DV or if the DV was caused by a confounding variable.
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What is external validity?
Refers to whether the findings of a study can be generalised beyond the present study.
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What is population validity?
The extent to which findings can be generalised to other populations of people.
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Describe ecological validity
Refers to the extent to which findings can be generalised beyond the present situation.
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Card 2

Front

Describe external validity

Back

Ecological validity is high because the study was realistic. Measurement can be applied to other circumstances. Results can be generalised.

Card 3

Front

What does internal reliability refer to?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does external reliability mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Summarise reliability

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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