# Significance Testing and Correlation

• Created by: xoemmamcl
• Created on: 24-11-17 16:31
What is Probability?
The likelihood of the occurrence of an event or outcome.
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What is a Z-Score?
It is how many standard deviations the data point is from the mean. Allows us to compare scores from different distributions.
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What is Standard Error?
It is a method used to estimate the standard deviation pf the sampling distribution.
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What do small standard errors mean?
They suggest that you have a good estimate of the population mean.
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What do large standard errors mean?
indicate a great degree pf uncertainty about good the sample mean is at estimating the population mean.
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What is the Standard Error of the Mean?
Tells us how far away the sample mean is from the population mean.
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What are confidence intervals?
A Confidence Interval is a range of values we are fairly sure our true value lies in.
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What is a degree?
How well the data fit the form being considered. Co-efficient will vary from -1 to +1 (Perfect Correlation).
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What is Null Hypothesis Significance Testing?
An inferential statistics technique that produces accurate probabilities about samples when the null hypothesis is true.
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What Statistically Significant mean?
Sample data with a probability less the .05 (5%).
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What is the Level of Significance? (Alpha)
α < alpha. It is the probability value that is criterion for rejecting the null hypothesis usually .05.
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What is the Rejection Region?
The portion of a sampling distribution which includes samples with probabilities less than alpha.
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What is Hypothesis Testing?
You cannot test alternative hypothesis so use stats to test null hypothesis. Gives something precise to test. If Null is false, alternative is true.
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What is probability?
low probability - stat is unlikely to occur if null hypothesis were true. High probability - stat is likely to occur if null hypotheses were true.
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What is significance?
Effect due to systematic influence, not due to chance. .05 high probability (no effect)
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What is Type I and Type II error?
I - rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true, the probability = alpha. II - T=Retaining the null hypothesis when it is false, the probability = beta.
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What is Pearson.s Correlation?
Represented by r & measures the degree and direction of a relationship between true variables.
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What are the assumption for this correlation?
- Interval/ratio data. - normally distributed. - Linear relationship.
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What is effect size?
A measure of the size of treatment effect or strength of association, unaffected by sample size. r squared can be used a measure of the strength of the relationship.
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What is Spearman's Correlation? (rs or p)
Ordinal data, not normal distributed, relationship should be monotonic.
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

What is a Z-Score?

#### Back

It is how many standard deviations the data point is from the mean. Allows us to compare scores from different distributions.

### Card 3

#### Front

What is Standard Error?

### Card 4

#### Front

What do small standard errors mean?

### Card 5

#### Front

What do large standard errors mean?