Short Term Physiological Preparation

Warm up
an essential principle of training which prepares the body for exercise. Involves: Pulse raiser, Stretching, Skill-related and Sport-related
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Physical Benefits
Increase in muscle temp, blood flow, heart rate, breathing rate, adrenaline, faster nerve impulses, reduced risk of injury
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Psychological Benefits
Skill rehearsal, increases coordination, arousal, focus, concentration, self-confidence
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Gross Motor Activity
(Pulse Raiser) involves all major muscle groups initiating blood flow e.g. light jogging
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lenghty stretching to increase muscle elasticity and reduce risk of tearing muscle or ligament
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Static Stretching
extending muscles to the point of resistance, whilst stationary, either active or passive (easy, done by anyone, less likely to injure)
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Dynamic Stretching
extending muscles to the point of resistance in a contolled motion (more effective than static, less than PNF)
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Ballistic Stretching
extending muscles past your natural range of movement in bouncy swinging movements (greatly increases ROM, may cause injury)
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PNF Stretching
Proprioceptive Muscular Facilitation - using a parnter toextend muscles through periods of relaxing and tensing muscles (most effective)
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Skill-related warm up
works the neuromuscular mechanisms for the activity ahead e.g. serves in tennis, turns in swimming
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Sport-related warm up
practicing sport-specific skills as the performer may experience in the game e.g. tennis serves against opponent, length swimming and turns
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Intensity of a warm up
depends upon the demands of the activity, a warm up is expected to meet the intensity of the game
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Duration of a warm up
depends on the demands of the activity, warm up until you reach the same level as expected in the game
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Adenosine triphosphate - the energy currancy linked to intense exercise last around 2 minutes, re-synthesise in the muscles ATP= ADP+Pi
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ATP-PC system
PC+ADP = ATP+C - a coupled reaction catalysed by Creatine Kinase, supplies energy for 3-10 seconds before PC depletion (anaerobic reaction)
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Lactic system
break down of glucose to pyruvic acid, by enzymes (GPP and PFK),which is converted to Lactic acid by enzyme (LDH), causes O2 debt and cramp, activity between 30-60 seconds (anaerobic reaction)
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Aerobic system
Glucose + 36ADP + 36Pi + 6O2 = 36ATP + 6CO2 + 6H2O, involves glycolysis (same as LS = 2ATP), Krebs Cylce (PA+acetly CoA+oxaloacetic acid = citric acid, producing H+,CO2 and 2ATP), Electron Transfer Chain (H+ travel across carriers = 32ATP
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Contributions of ATP
all 3 systems contribute ATP for sport, your level of fitness and avalibility of O2 or food fuels also impact ATP production, original ATP store becomes delpeted in 2 seconds
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3 food groups that provide energy
Carbohydrates (stored as Glycogen, broken down to glucose), Fats (long term activity, produce ATP at rest) and Proteins (only produce ATP in absence of Carbs)
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Diet Manipulation
changing individuals diet to supply adequete fuel stores for exercise and replace them after
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Balanced Diet
50-60% carb, 25-35% fats, 10-15% protein (as well as vitamins, minerals, fibre, water)
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Pre-competion Nutrition
fluid for hydration, light complex carbs (e.g. pasta, wholemeal bread) 3 hours before, fruit, glucose
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During competition Nutrition
small + frequent amounts of carbs (drinks,gels, tablets, bananas), drink water
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Post-competition Nutrition
Hypertonic drinks immediately after, high carb meal (within 15 minutes)
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10-15% for growth and repair, recommended 1.2-1.4g perKG body, increasing percentage causes extra bulk
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50-60% main energy source, excess (carbo-loading) aims to raise muscle glycogen stores above their normal capacity prior to competition
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to maximise glycogen store before competition, by a depletion phase (high intensity-low carb intake) 5/6 days before, immediately followed by 'loading phase' (low intensity-high carb intake) estimated to improve performance by 2-3%
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Advantages of Carbo-Loading
increases aerobic capacity, delays fatigue, increases muscle glycogen stores, improves performance by 2-3%
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Disadvantages of Carbo-Loading
Water retetion increase causing bloating, increase in weight, may cause depression in depletion phase, not suitable for sports less than 15-20 minutes
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Importance of Water
helps cells grow, maintains water levels,helps kidneys flush toxins, transport nutrients, blood viscosity, thermoregulation
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a state of optimum water balance, as little as 2% decline can impact performance, drinking water every 10 minutes whilst exercising prevents dehydration
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salts and minerals found in the blood that can conduct electrical impluses in the body, e.g. sodium, calcium
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when the body is losing more fluid than it is taking in
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Symptoms of dehydration
thirst, dry mouth, fatigue, dizziness, faint, dark urine, increase HR and body temp
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Effects of dehydration on performance
slows O2 delivery to muscles, muscle cramps, less focus/concentration, reduced coordination and reactions
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Overcoming dehydration
rest, drink water/fluids, stay in shade, buy over-counter drugs (isotonic drinks), go to hospital in severe cases
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3 Types of sport drinks
Isotonic (same sugar content as blood), Hypotonic (low carb, low osmotic pressure), Hypertonic (high carb, high osmotic pressure)
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Arguements agains sport drinks
there is no difference between runners who drink water and runners who drink sport drinks, world records are broken using only water, water is accessible/cheaper in shops, carbs in drinks only help endurance athletes
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protein made of amino acids, stored in the liver and kidneys, found in muscles as PC (phosphocreatine), acts as energy score to resynthesise ATP
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aims to gain muscle mass and maximise PC stores through a diet high in protein (fish and red meat)
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Advantages of Creatine-Loading
improve anaerobic/power athletes, increase muscle mass, aids recovery, legal method
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Disadvantages of Creatine-Loading
can put strain on the liver/kidneys, only benefits some sports, lack of scientific supporting evidence, can cause dehydration and muscle swelling
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Factors to take into account when planning Hydration
duration of activity, type of sport (intensity), sweat rate, environment (temperatrue,wind, humidity), how acclimatised athlete is, type of drink, timing of drinking
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Factors to consider when planning Diet
Environment (temp, humity), injury (more protein for muscle repair), timing of diet (pre or post), meet the fuel requirements for the intensity/duration/type of sport, ensuring stores are full before, topped up during and replenished after exercise
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Diet for Endurance Athlete
Carbohydrates (65-75%), Protein(15-20%), Fats(30%)
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Diet for Power Athlete
Carbohydrates (50-70%), Protein(15-20%), Fats(30%)
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the process by which athletes prepare by becoming used to different environments (temp, altitude) = 10-18 days before the event
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Altitude Training
change sto effect the partial pressure in order to increase the amount of EPO released in order to increase RBC so the body can deliever more O2 = living and/or training in reduced oxygen air
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Types of Altitude techniques
LHTH= live high-train high, maximum exposure improves performacne at high altitudes. LLTH= live low-train high, lose fitness as work less -limited O2. LHTL= live high-train low (12 hours a day at sealevel, 3 week min to improve aerobic)
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Advantages of Altitude training
increase haemagobin concentration (and affinity), increase RBC - decrease blood plasma, increasee myoglobin, increase mitochondia for respiration, train longer without fatigue
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Disadvantages of Altitude Training
cost, altitude sickness, dehydration, eventually adapt back, nausea, negative impact on immune system can be replicated by hypotoxic tents or masks
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Increase in muscle temp, blood flow, heart rate, breathing rate, adrenaline, faster nerve impulses, reduced risk of injury


Physical Benefits

Card 3


Skill rehearsal, increases coordination, arousal, focus, concentration, self-confidence


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


(Pulse Raiser) involves all major muscle groups initiating blood flow e.g. light jogging


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


lenghty stretching to increase muscle elasticity and reduce risk of tearing muscle or ligament


Preview of the back of card 5
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