Short and Long term memory

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What is the capacity of STM?
9.3 digits, 7.3 letters - limited capacity
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Who suggested this and when?
Joseph Jacobs, 1887
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What is this study called?
Digit span
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What did George Miller suggest?
The magic number 7+/-2
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What is the capacity of LTM?
Unlimited
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What is the duration of STM?
Very short, less than 18 seconds when verbal rehearsal is prevented
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Who proposed this and when?
Peterson and Peterson, 1959
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What did the study involve?
24 students, TXH 512 - had to count backwards from number at the different times (3,6,9,12,15,18 seconds) and then try remember the letters
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What were the findings of this study?
90% were correct over 3 seconds, 2% were correct over 18 seconds which shows that STM has a short duration, when verbal rehearsal is prevented.
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What is coding?
The way information can be changed to be stored in the memory
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What are the two types of coding?
Semantic And Acoustic coding
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What is acoustic coding?
Cat, Cab, Can, Cad, Cap - sound similar
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What is semantic coding?
Great, large, big, huge, broad - meaning is similar
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Who was the researcher for this and when?
Baddeley, 1966
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What did he find?
Participants had difficulty remembering acoustically similar words in STM but not LTM. Participants also found it difficult to remember semantically similar words in LTM but not STM.
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EVALUATION: Capacity of STM may be limited
STM may be limited to just 4 chunks, and therefore may not be as extensive as first thought.
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Who proposed this and when?
Cowan, 2001
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EVALUATION: testing STM was artificial
The research was all meaningless information, so therefore has a low ecological validity
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EVALUATION: Baddeley may not have tested LTM
is 20 minutes really LTM?
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Who suggested this and when?

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Joseph Jacobs, 1887

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What is this study called?

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Card 4

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What did George Miller suggest?

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What is the capacity of LTM?

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