Sexual reproduction in plants

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what is the special name gven to flowring plants
Angiosperms
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Define the term pollination
The transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of aplant of the same species
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Why is pollination necassary
So fertilazatoin can be ahived by the contact of the male gametes and the the female part of the flowe
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Define self pollination
pollen from the anthers of a flower are transferred to the stigma of the same flower, or another flower in the SAME PLANT
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Defone cross polination
Cross pollinatoin occurs where pollen is transferred from the anthers of one flower to the stigma of another flower of the same species
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Why are angiosperms relasionship with animals inportant
Because pollen grains have no power of independant movement
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In breeding is caused by what kind of pollination
Self pollination
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What are the consequences of inbreding
reductoin in the degree of variation in a population, also a greater chance of 2 undesirable recessive alleles being brought togetehr at fertilisation
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What are the advantages of inbreeding
it can preserve good genomes which may be suited to a relativly stable environmen
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Which yype of pollenisation leads to self fertilisation
Self pollination
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Ergo, what type leads to cross fertilization
cross pollination
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How does varioto=ion occur in self fertilisatoin
random assortment, crosisng over durin gmeiosis, and mutation
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which type of fertilization hsow more genetic variatoin
Cross
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HOw are flowers adapted to cross polination
Insects, wind
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How does insect polination occur
an insect eg a bee enters the flower, the anthers brish against teh back of the bee, depositing sticky pollen. When the bee enters another flower, the pollen is deposited on the ripe stigma
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Where are the anthers located in wind pollinated flowers
On the outside of the flower
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What is the advantage of this
wind ca nble away smal, smooth light pollen
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What is the advatage of having feathery stigmas hangign outside the flowers
Provide a large SA for catching pollen grains that are blown into their path
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Which type of flower has a larger amount of pollen, insect or wind pollinated
Wnd pollinated
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In the anther , diplod cells undergo meiosis to form haploid pollen grains. What is the pollen grain surrounded by, and to what function
Tough wall that is resistant to dessication
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WHat does this enable
Pollen to be transferred from one flower to another without drying out
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Inside the pollen grain, the hapolid nucleus undergoes mitosis to produce what
2 nuclei , a generative nuclei and the tube nucleus
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What happens when the pollen is mature
the outer layers of the anthers dry out and tensoins are set up in lateral groves
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what happens to cause the pollen sacs to curl away and expose the pollen grains
dehiscence
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Where are the ovules produced
in the ovary
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where does the female gamete/egg nucleus develop
inside the ovule
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how many nuclei are formed by mitosis in the hapliod embryo sac
eight
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define the term fertilization
The process by which the male gamete fuses with the female gamete to form a zygote
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how does the male gamete reach the female gamete in the ovule
Pollen tube
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what does the stigma produce when a compatible pollen grain lands on it
a sugary solution
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What happens when the pollen grain comes into contact with htis sugary solution
it germinates, producing a pollen tuble
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where does the pollen tube grow
Down the style
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how does it move through the style
By secreting enzymes which digest the style, as well as gaining nutrients from the digested products
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where is the pollen tube nucleus positioned
AT THE TOP OF THE TUBE, with the 2 male nucli posisiotned close behind
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the pollen tube grows through a gap in the integuments, what is this gap called
The micropyle
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What happens to the pollen tube after it has passed into the embryo sac
it disintergrates
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The tip of the pollen tube bursts open , rleasing what?
the male gamete into the embryo sac
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what is fromed when the one of the male gamete and female nucleus fusea
a zygote
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What happens to the other male gametes
they fuse with both polar nuclei to form a triploid endosperm nucleus
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What does the seed develop from
The fertilised ovule
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What does the seed contain
an embryonic plant and food store
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HOw does the embryo form
The dipliod zygote divides by mitosis
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What does the embryo cinsist of
The plumule, a radicle, and one or 2 leaves or cotyledons
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What does the triploid emndosperm nucleus develop into
a food store to provide reserves for the developing embryo
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What do the integuments form
The seed coat or testa
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What does the ovule become
The seed
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What forms the fruit
The ovary
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What type of see dis a broad bean
A dicotyledon
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Why
iyt has 2 seed leaves
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Give an example of a monocotlydon
Maize
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In dicotlydons, where is the food store
Absorbed into the coyldons
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where is the food store in cotyldons
Surrounds the seed leaves
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What are the three main requirements for succsessufl germination and why
Temperature- optimm temp for enzymes, Water, for mobilisation of enzymes, vaculation of cells and transport, and oxygen, for resperatoin for energy, atp, for metabolism and growth
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Why cant food reserves in seeds be transported in ewater in seedlings
They are insoluble in water
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therefore the food reserves must be broken down into what
simple soluble substances which dissolve in water
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Where are the then transported to
The growing apices of the young shoot
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Why is water taken up rapidly in the intial stages
causeing tissues to swell and mobilising enzymes
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in which direction will the radicle grow
downwards
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Which ruptures fist the radicle or plumule
Radicle
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which directoion does the plumule grow in
Up wards
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Which enzyme hydrolysese stach to maltose
amylase
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Where is the maltose transported too
Growing points
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during germination , where do the cotyldons of the broad bena remain
below ground
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What is the advantage to the plumule being bent over in the shape of the hook
Prevents damage to the tip by soil abrasion
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What happens when the plumule emerges
It nfurls and begins to photosythesis, by now food reserves n cotyldons are depleated
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Card 2

Front

Define the term pollination

Back

The transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of aplant of the same species

Card 3

Front

Why is pollination necassary

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Define self pollination

Back

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Card 5

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Defone cross polination

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