Sex differences in Parental investment

Parental investment and Sexual selection

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  • Created by: Junior
  • Created on: 20-04-14 15:39
What is Triver's definition of parental investment?
Any investment by a parent in an offspring that increases the chance that the offspring will survive at the expense of that parent's ability to invest in any other offspring.
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Who created the parental investment hypothesis? and what is it?
James Trevis - The partner who invests the most selects the mate.
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Why do female humans invest more?
Increased brain size in EEA lead to immature births. 9 months pregnancy followed by years of postnatal care.
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Explain Symons' description of parental investment
"a few moments of copulation and a teaspoonful of seamen" compared to
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What is Millers explanation of how males avoid cuckoldry in society?
Adultry laws that define offences in terms of the woman's marital status rather than the man's.
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Describe Buss; explanation of sexual jealousy
Men are more jealous of the sexual act. Women are more jealous of the shift of emotional focus
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Describe Dunbar's 1997 lonley hearts ad, content analysis study.
Liverpool, Men list financial/material successes and are looking for a fertile female. Females listed physical attractiveness and were looking for financially secure males.
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What were Anderson's 1999 findings about paternal certainty?
Both biological and stepfathers invested resources (time wise and financially) and didn't discriminate between biological/stepchildren.
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Describe the results for Baker and Bellis' magazine survey on extra martial affairs and it's meaning
Up to 14% of the population were products of extramarital matings. Females attempt to ensure highest quality offspring
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What were Michalski and Shackelford,s findings on investment by grandparents?
Maternal grandmothers invested the most in their grandchildren followed by maternal grandfathers and paternal grandmothers and paternal grandfathers the least.
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What were Reid's 1997 findings in support of paternal investment?
Males contribute to parenting by providing resource such as a stable food supply. Which increases the health of the family and decreasing infant/ child mortality.
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What were Buss et al's 1992 findings on differnt types of sexual jealousy?
Male US students more concern about sexual infidelity, females on emotional infidelity. Psychological responses recored, men showed increased arousal and distress on imagining scenes of sexual rather than emotional infidelity.
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Other than biological factors, what other factors did Rowe 2002 give to explain parental investment
paternal investment on evolutionary factors alone is very limited. Paternal behaviour depends on different personal/social conditions. E.G quality of relationship with mother, characteristics of the child and personality of the father.
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What reason did Belsky 1991 give that effect paternal investment?
Childhood experiences such as parental divorce, found to correlate with degree of investment by men in the upbringing and care of their own children.
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How are sexual selection and parental investment theories deterministic?
genetically deterministic, doesn't account for homosexuality or celibacy.
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How does parternal investment differ in chimpanzees and bonobos compared to human males?
Males show little or no paternal investment, implying male parenting in humans is due to a dramatic evolutionary change or the contribution of cultural learning.
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Why would the diathesis Stress model be a better explanation for parental investment and sexual selection in modern humans?
Accounts for diathesis - genetics and stress - the environment. Human relationships more complicated than other mammals, environment and personal experiences effect our personality and habits.
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Why are the parental investment and sexual selection hypothesis retrospective?
untestable, no solid evidence of ancestors mating and investment habits.
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Card 2

Front

Who created the parental investment hypothesis? and what is it?

Back

James Trevis - The partner who invests the most selects the mate.

Card 3

Front

Why do female humans invest more?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Explain Symons' description of parental investment

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is Millers explanation of how males avoid cuckoldry in society?

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