Sex and Gender Flashcards

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  • Created by: Kim_Hurn
  • Created on: 09-05-18 22:47
What is Sex?
The biological differences between males and females, including chromosomes, hormones and anatomy.
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What is Gender?
The psychological and cultural differences between male and female, including attitudes, behaviours and social roles.
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What is a Sex Role Stereotype?
A set of beliefs and preconceived ideas about what is expected or appropriate for males and females in a society.
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What is Gender Identity Disorder?
When the biological prescribed gender does not reflect the way they feel inside and identify themselves with.
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What is Androgyny?
Displaying a balance of masculine and feminine characteristics in ones personality.
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What is the BSRI?
Bem Sex Role Inventory.
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What does the Bem Sex Role Inventory present?
20 characteristics that would be either identified as 'masculine', 'feminine' and 'neutral'
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What were respondents required to do?
Rate themselves on a seven point rating scale for each item, scores are then classified on the basis of two dimensions, masculinity, femininity and androgynous.
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What are Chromosomes?
Found in the nucleus of living cells, carrying information in the form of genes, 23rd pair determine the biological sex.
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What are Hormones?
A chemical substance circulated in the blood, controls / regulates the activity of cells / organs, prenatally in the womb they act upon development and cause the development of reproductive organs.
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What is Testosterone?
A hormone from the androgen group that is produced mainly in the male testes and is associated with aggressiveness.
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What is Oestrogen?
A female hormone, plays an important role in the menstrual cycle and reproduction system.
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What is Oxytocin?
Causes contraction of the uterus, stimulates location and 'love hormone'.
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What are Atypical Sex Chromosome Patterns?
Any sex chromosome that deviates from the usual.
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What is Klinefelter's Syndrome?
Biological males with the anatomical appearance of a male and have an additional X chromosome (XXY).
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Name some Physical Characteristics of Klinefelter's Syndrome?
Reduced body hair, breast development, underdeveloped genitals, long gangly limbs, softening / round of body contours and susceptible to health problems.
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Name some Psychological Characteristics of Klinefelter's Syndrome?
Poorly developed language skills and reading ability, passive shy and lack interest in sexual activity, don't respond well to stressful situations, problems with executive problems such as memory.
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What is Turner's Syndrome?
Biological females, caused by absence of one allotted X chromosome (XO)
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Name some Physical Characteristics of Turner's Syndrome?
Don't have a menstrual cycle as ovaries don't develop, do not develop breast and have a broad chest, low set ears and webbed neck, high waist to hip ratio as hips aren't much bigger than the waist.
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Name some Psychological Characteristics of Turner's Syndrome?
Higher than average reading ability, mathematical, visual and spatial performance is lower than usual, socially immature, trouble relating to peers and experience difficulty fitting in.
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What are the Stages of Kohlberg's Theory?
Gender Identity, Gender Stability and Gender Constancy.
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What is Gender Identity?
Age of 2 children correctly identify themselves boy / girl, at 3 identify others as either male or female.
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What is Gender Stability?
Age 4 realise they'll stay the same gender yet are unable to apply to others as they are often left confused by external changes in appearence.
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What is Gender Constancy?
Age 6 recognise gender is consistent across time and situations. Eventually apply to other people and may only regard external changes strange or unusual but still acknowledge their gender.
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When do they start seeking out gender appropriate roles according to Kohlberg?
During the Gender Constancy stage they look for roles to imitate and once developed actively search for evidence to confirm.
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What does the Gender Schema Theory suggest?
Gender identity is an outcome of children actively structuring their own experiences, believe children learn gender appropriate behaviour once they are able to identify themselves boy / girl.
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What are Schemas?
Organised clusters of information about gender appropriate behaviours, learnt form interacting with other people and stereotypes.
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At what age do children have a fixed stereotypical idea?
Age 6 they disregard or misremember information that does not fit their stereotypical idea.
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What is meant by Ingroups and Outgroups?
Ingroup schemas focus on the one they personally categorise themselves into, they will avoid behaviour belonging to the outgroup schemas.
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What is Direct Reinforcement in Social Learning for Gender?
Children are likely to be reinforced for demonstrating gender appropriate behaviour.
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What is Differential Reinforcement in Social Learning for Gender?
Way they are encouraged to show distinct gender appropriate behaviours and learn their gender.
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What is Vicarious Reinforcement in Social Learning for Gender?
Consequences of another persons behaviour is imitated by a child and is less likely if unfavourable.
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What are the Meditational Processes?
1) Attention 2) Retention 3) Motivation 4) Motor Reproduction.
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What is the Oedipus Complex developed in the Psychodynamic Explanation?
Boy develops feeling for mother, becomes jealous and hates their father who stands in the way. Boy recognises his father is powerful and fears castration so resolves the conflict by giving up his love and identifying with his father.
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What is the Electra Complex developed in the Psychodynamic Explanation?
Girl experiences penis envy and sees mother as competition for their fathers love. Blames mother for their lack of penis and believe they have already been castrated.
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What is Identification / Internalisation according to Freud?
Where both sexes identify with the same sex parent to resolve their respective complexes, boys adopt attitudes / values of father and girls those of their mother.
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How does Culture influence Gender?
Gender roles are culturally determined.
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Who did the study on the Influence of Culture on Gender?
Margaret Mead.
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What did Mead find?
Arapesh - gentle / responsive. Mundugumour - aggressive / hostile. Tchambili - dominant / organised. Women overall sought men who offer wealth / resources, men sought youth / attractiveness for potential partners.
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How does Media Influence Gender?
Provides role models to imitate.
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Who did the study on the Influence of Media on Gender?
Bussey and Bandura.
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What did Bussey and Bandura find?
Men are independent, ambitious and advice givers whereas women are dependent, unambitious and advice seekers. Found men were shown in autonomous roles in professional contexts and women occupied family roles in domestic settings.
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What is Information Giving?
Where children who are exposed to popular forms of media tend to display more gender stereotypical views in behaviour and attitudes as they see people perform these increasing their beliefs.
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What are the Four Theories of Atypical Gender Development?
Brain Sex Theory, Genetic Factors, Cognitive Explanation and Psychoanalytic Theory.
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What is Brain Sex Theory?
Caused by specific brain structures, areas that are dimorphic. Zhou et al studied the bed nucleus of stria terminals in post mortem studies of male to female and the BSTc was found a typical size of the female brain.
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How do Genetic Factors contribute?
Coolidge et al assessed 157 twin pairs, and estimated 2.3% with 62% accounted for by genetic variance.
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What did Heylen do with Genetic Factors to contribute?
Compared 23 mz twins with 21 dz twins, one diagnosed with GID. 9 mz twins were concordant for GID but none of the dz twins.
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What is the Psychoanalytic Theory?
Ovesy and Person argued GID in males is caused by extreme separation and anxiety before establishing their gender. Child fantasises of a symbiotic fusion with the mother, child becomes the mother and adopts a female identity.
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What is the Cognitive Explanation?
Liben and Bigler proposed dual pathway theory.
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What does the dual pathway theory suggest?
The first pathway acknowledges development of gender schema and the second pathway describes how gender attitudes are affected by their activity.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is Gender?

Back

The psychological and cultural differences between male and female, including attitudes, behaviours and social roles.

Card 3

Front

What is a Sex Role Stereotype?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is Gender Identity Disorder?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is Androgyny?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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