Human Geography- Settlement Change

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what is the rural-urban fringe?
a zone of transition between built up areas of the city and the countryside, where there is often competition for land use
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what are some of the land uses of the rural-urban fringe?
shopping malls, golf courses, farmland and motorways
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how is the conflict managed in rural-urban fringes?
managed by planning policies and since the 1960s development has been restricted by Green Belt planning policies
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what is meant by the term 'green belt'?
areas that are protected so that urban populations could have access to healthy, fresh air locations that have a high amenity value
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what is an example of a green belt area?
in Belfast the Lagan Valley Regional Park has been protected since the 1960s as green recreational space for South Belfast
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what are the 3 issues of the rual-urban fringe?
development in the green belt, suburbanisation/urban sprawl and counter-urbanisation
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what are the problems with development in the green belt?
commuting distances/traffic congestion, retail developments in the fringe and waste management (eg Hightown incinerator in Belfast)
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what are the problems with suburbanisation/urban sprawl?
growth of working class housing ion the edge of the city and large private housing estates in the green belt
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what is the problem with counter-urbanisation?
causes green field housing developments further out
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what is the 2006 Belfast Metropolitan Area Plan?
this plan outlined future strategies and demands in the commuying area, including the rural- urban fringe
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what are some of the figures from the 2006 Belfast Metropolitan Area Plan?
66,500 houses will be required, 9,000 of these will be built on greenfield sites in Carryduff, Moira etc
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where is a proposed area for a national park in NI?
the Mourne Mountains
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what is suburbanisation?
decentralisation of people, employment and services from the inner part of the city towards the margins of the built up area
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what is counterurbanisation?
this is change extending beyond the city area and marks the apparent reversal of the urbanisation process which is occurring in MEDCs i.e. urban-rural migration is taking place
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why are the Mourne Mountains considered a potential national park?
they have a variety of physical landscapesw including mountains, coast and lowland areas, moorland and peat areas, along with agriculture on the lower slopes and has over 400 historic monuments
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how big is the proposed area?
57,000ha
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why hasnt there been a National Park installed yet?
farmers and locals are oppposed to it, farmers fear that they will lose business, that tourists will destroy the environment and locals fear that they will be priced out of the market
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what is an important quote from the Ulster Farmers Union that issues their stance on the Mournes?
"Farmers are passionately opposed to these proposals"
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what is re-urbanisation?
refers to the movement of people back into an area that has previously been abandoned
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what is gentrification?
the process by which wealthier people more into, renovate and restore housing and sometimes businesses in inner cities
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what are some of the push factors fro the rural area?
unemployment, crime, lack of healthcare and climate change
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what are some of the pull factors to the urban area?
employment, higher standards of living, better access to healthcare and education and less isolation
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what is rural-urban migration?
the movement of people form the countryside to the city
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what is rural depopulation?
usually when numbers of working agepeople migrate from the countryside to earn more money in the city. They leave behind the old and the young
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what is a mega city?
cities with over 10 million people
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what are some of the problems facing LEDC cities?
healthcare, education, lack of clean water, poverty, diseases, poor sewage systems, crime etc
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according to a UN report, by 2050 what proportion of the world's population will be living in cities?
two thirds
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roughly how many of all city dwellers in LEDCs live in informal settlements?
one third
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what are the two opposing views on the role of informal settlements?
ladder out of poverty (new migrants are prepared to endure hardship for short period of time) and poverty trap (migrants are forced to live in these settlements with no security of tenure)
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where is Kalkaji located?
Delhi, India
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what are some key facts about the Kalkaji slum area?
located in SE Delhi, population of around 70,000 people, diverse mix of Hindu and Muslim population
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what are some of the key challenges and issues facing Kalkaji?
health and sanitation, children, employment, drugs and drink
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what are the specific health and sanitation problems?
monsoons cause flooding and sewerage contamination, rats, tuberculosis and typhoid prevalent and rubbish collection is limited
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what are the specific problems facing children?
access to education is limited (state schools only provide half day education), female infanticide and very low levels of income make third level education unlikely
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what are the specific employment issues?
informal economy thrives, wages are very low (daily rate of 100/200 rupee is common) and very high levels of unemployment- especially for males
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what are the specific drugs and drink problems?
alcoholism and abuse is common and organised crime and gangs are a problem in all slums
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which NGO is making a big difference in this area?
Asha- founded by Dr Kiran Martin
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Who does Asha help?
provides basic programmes of healthcare and education for 71 slum communities across Delhi including Kalkaji for over 600,000 people
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How does Asha meet the challenges of slum settlements?
understanding disease, early years childcare and vaccination, improve sanitation, low cost medicines and cleaner water
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Card 2

Front

what are some of the land uses of the rural-urban fringe?

Back

shopping malls, golf courses, farmland and motorways

Card 3

Front

how is the conflict managed in rural-urban fringes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is meant by the term 'green belt'?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is an example of a green belt area?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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