Trea Thema

How many knights was Godfrey left with after the 1099 Battle of Ascalon?
c300, which made it difficult for him to assert his authority and organise defence. However gradually settlers ensured a long-term Western presence in the Near East.
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What economic aspects in Europe might have encouraged migration to the Near East?
Areas such as the Low Countries suffered from overcrowding and famine; in others, taxation or labour service was harsh (the former prompting a Châlons-sur-Marne cobbler to leave for Outremer, which was fairly empty, fertile, but thriving)
2 of 15
What benefits were offered to settles at Casal Imbert c1150, under Baldwin III?
Long-term leases on housing; exemptions, such as on rent for housing or land; free facilities, such as mills and olive groves; favourable terms, such as payment of only 1/7th crops to the King
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In what way were labour services less exerting in the Near East than in Europe?
They took up a day a week at most, and included undemanding tasks like transporting goods or repair work
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What were the patterns of settlement in Outremer?
Most lived in Urban areas, for instance in Palestine 120,000/150,000 lived in towns; but there were sizeable populations of Europeans in rural villages. Outremer had c200 colonial settlements; new villages included towers, courthouses, and churches.
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What village provides evidence for European settlement out of urban areas?
A mid-12th-Century list regarding Magna Mohemeria in Jerusalem included 150 names, of which 44 were originally from France and western Europe.
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Where, generally did Italian communities settle?
Urban areas; Outremer's major cities had Italian quarters: in Antioch the Genoese had a number of communal buildings, and 1/3 of the port of Tyre was given to a Venetian settlement.
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What features did the city of Ramot have?
A fortified building for storage and the protection a lord; uniform ***** fields for farming; houses with wine-making and olive-pressing facilities.
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Which areas did the Franks settling in rural areas tend to choose?
Ones which held indigenous Christians; there they would either build their own church, or share one with the native eastern Christians
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What are some examples of cosmopolitan urban areas with significant integration, and even harmony, between different races and religions?
Acre, with western pilgrims, near-eastern traders, and middle-eastern merchants; tyre and Tripoli, with Muslims and Christians; Antioch, with Byzantines and Franks.
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Why was Outremer never truly secure against threats from the Byzantines, Turks, or Egyptians?
There was an absence of natural boundaries to the east
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How did each major area of Outremer defend itself?
Edessa relied on fortified towns; Antioch relied on the castle at Margat and Saone; Tripoli used castles for acquisition; Jerusalem built Chastel Hernault in the 1130s and key cities had walls built
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What specific threat/s did each state face?
Edessa was sparsely populated and was under constant threat of invasion; Antioch needed to safeguard access to its main port Latakia, and protect interior routes;...;Jerusalem was threatened by Egyptians, and needed to defend the roads into cities
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How did castles change over time in Outremer?
At first there were mostly fortified towers built quickly to establish control, and these developed into more sophisticated forms, such as concentric and spur castles.
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What were the purposes of castles over time?
1. Consolidation and submission; establishing control over territory until 1115. 2. Administration; after control secured, in rural territory they were symbols of authority, and rent had to be paid. 3. Defence; from late 1160s, against more threat
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What economic aspects in Europe might have encouraged migration to the Near East?

Back

Areas such as the Low Countries suffered from overcrowding and famine; in others, taxation or labour service was harsh (the former prompting a Châlons-sur-Marne cobbler to leave for Outremer, which was fairly empty, fertile, but thriving)

Card 3

Front

What benefits were offered to settles at Casal Imbert c1150, under Baldwin III?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

In what way were labour services less exerting in the Near East than in Europe?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What were the patterns of settlement in Outremer?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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